• lucky

    Nationalism and internationalism are opposing and mutually exclusive

    Nationalism, ideology based on the premise that the individual’s loyalty and devotion to the nation-state surpass other individual or group interests. Nationalism is more related to birth. It is the birth which imbibes feeling of Nationalism in any individual which grows with him along with the society, circumstances, environment. Hence every individual is attached to ones nation. Nationalism is a very well known, established and fitted phenomenon where as Internationalism is an emerging one.

    Each individual has a number of identities say one individual initially has a feeling of belongingness to a village and then enhances on a hierarchy simultaneously belongs to a district and then to a state and then to a country. All the territories are man-made according to some convenience or similarities or differences whether social, political or economical. The most important driving factor of any identity is differences between the two sets of groups. For example at village level there is a division on the lines of caste and that drives the identity and at same time at provincial level language or religion may drive it, here the crux is some sort of identity drives the feeling of belongingness. On the same lines national identity drives the feeling of nationalism.

    Here having so many identities to an individual an obvious question is that which identity is given importance or superiority? This is purely situation based. For example there will be many divisions, conflicts internal to a college like inter branch, inter discipline but when comes to an inter college arena solidarity of our college will be strengthened. In the same way every country has a no. of internal divisions but on an international platform national solidarity will be strengthened. And the same analogy is valid for internationalism too. But analogy is too complex. As the hierarchy of the identity increases the complexity grows with it.

    Internationalism is an emerging phenomenon, which used to be considered as ideal former. There are times when the international solidarity did come into play. When dealing with more complex issues like human rights, terrorism, climate change, disaster management we can feel the international solidarity. Also this identity strengthening process is a bottom up approach without having a strong nationalism feeling one cannot have the feeling of internationalism. So if it is true that having many identities locally national consciousness is flourishing, the same will be true for internationalism too. Here the point is once the national identity comes into action remaining identities doesn’t disappear. Every identity will come into play depending on the situation and the scale. Hence it is very much true that simultaneous different identity feelings exist and so an individual can have both the feeling of nationalism and internationalism depending on the situation and issue.

    However internationalism is a bit complex identity. It doesn’t act and grow at a similar pace with other identities. The reason behind this is when we operate on any identity we have an effective opposite group with which we compare, contrast, compete, conflict,…but when we come to international identity we don’t have a permanent effective opposite group in order to have that identity to grow and flourish. There comes few situations when we need to act against an ad hoc group or issue(which may last for years though) then comes into action the internationalism and gradually decreases even if the problem still exist as it may not be a common issue to all the nations involved or issue is affecting at different scales to different nations. Probably after many no. of years from now if Mars got inhabited like our earth then perhaps may flourish a strong feeling of internationalism on earth comparing, competing, conflicting those people.

  • Manasa Kulkarni

    Nationalism means supporting one’s country and culture. Internationalism is basically political, economic and cultural cooperation between the nations. This includes recognition of right of all the nations to self-determination, national sovereignty, cultural peace, socioeconomic progress, defend the country’s border against external aggression and non intereference in the internal affairs.

    It is impossible for one to be internationalist without being a nationalist. Internationalism is possible only when nationalism becomes a fact. That is why Lenin says ‘there is no internationalism without nationalism as the later is the constituent of former’.
    According to Gandhiji’s concept serving the human kind at large is nationalism. One’s nationalism should not hurt others and it should not be oppressive.

    Nationalism and internationalism coexist especially in this globalized world and they are not opposite and mutually exclusive. This is evident from many organizations which are existing in the world. The best example is UNO, NAM etc. Many organizations like SAARC, ASEAN, G-20, SCO exist for mutual economic cooperation and this is not possible without the spirit of a true bent of nationalism-internationalism for the benefit of people of respective countries. And for many technological advancements all the countries are forming associations.

    Indian constitution also embraces the spirit of internationalism and giving importance to humanism, to have compassion for living creatures etc. (Fundamental duties article 51A g and h). India’s foreign policy and cooperation is mainly based on ‘Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam’ and ‘Sarve janah sukhinobhavantu’. So our nationalism is to serve the humanity for realising the Mahatma’s concept of nationalism.

    However, there are certain circumstances which makes us to believe nationalism and internationalism are opposing. Ex: long standing conflict of India-Pakistan. Before independence we all belong to one group, we started independence struggle as one. But the cultural and religional conflicts are still prevailing by suppressing the larger interest of humanism. Nationalism solely believes in not harming others. As Marx says ‘No nation which oppress others can itself be free’. But through cyber espionage every nation indulged in self-interest by oppressing the interesrs of other nations. It is jingoism which exclusively considers only national interest not internationalism because of establishing superiority over others or suppress others.

    To combat environmental change and The international terrorism is the threat to all countries globally irrespective of their development. So, to combat terrorism regional cooperation with neighbouring countries and international cooperation globally is essential. So, nationalism should constitute spirit of internationalism for the betterment of human being.
    ‘Manuja mata vishva patha'(Mankind’s religion is the universal path of all people). This will lead to global peace with inclusive growth of all.

    • Vibhu

      good attempt Manasa , you are becoming a expert in essay writing but with that i must say there is still a room for improvement. Keep writing

      • Manasa Kulkarni

        Thank u Vibhu..:)…
        Yes… still a lot to improve!

    • Eyerish hussain

      Not effective….looks you need to work more…
      And the big bash in essay is aberration from main topiv…
      Like speaking about bilateral issue whereas the fovus should have been international…
      Also complete opposition is errand.
      May be i may be wrong

      • Manasa Kulkarni

        Thanks fr ur review…
        As I think internationalism bilateral or multilateral cooperation go hand in hand…
        Keep reviewing…:)

      • sridhar

        can anyone plz… xplain me exactly what is nationalism and internationalism…???
        i am unable to understand the web definitions….

    • shankar


  • Discipline9

    Dear Insights team…Thank you so much for the question and more importantly for valuable reference links. So kind of you!!.
    May God bless u 🙂

  • aryan singh

    Pl review…answer sheets are in continued form..couldn’t post all in onr go

    • aryan singh


      • aryan singh


  • aryan singh

    Pl ignore d earlier ones…they were not in ordrt..read dis nd review

    • p..k

      Can’t read,its not clear

      • aryan singh

        Sry..my mistake..thnx fr d effrt

  • Nationalism and internationalism are opposing and mutually exclusive
    Nationalism is the policy or doctrine of asserting the interests of one’s own nation viewed as separate from the interests of other nations or the commoninterests of all nations.It is a belief, creed or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one’s nation and sometime used in place of patriotism to describe devotion and loyalty to one’s own country. Nationalism involves national identity and is often used hand in hand with the word patriotism .
    In contrast,Internationalism is the belief that the world is a single group as a whole and interests of all nations should be taken care of and all should be included in the path towards prosperity while at the same time maintaining each other’s freedom , sovereignty and integrity.

    The two terms appear to be apparently at opposite ends going by the way they are defined and elaborated hence it is not surprising that it is widely believed that they are mutually exclusive i.e attainment or working to achieve one will happen at the the cost of the other.In other word,the one can’t be made better off without making the other worse off.Nationalism involves putting one’s national interests ahead without caring for others and it often comes at the cost of peace ,friendship and order.It often involves the feeling that one’s nation is superior to others and must attain dominance over others in economic ,political and social areas in order to preserve and protect it’s interests and assert it’s goal as it’s rights more prominently .Such mindset of a state leads to colonialism,subjugation , intervention in domestic affairs of other countries and violation of others’ freedom and integrity. Modern world is full of many examples that vindicate this point. The American intervention in Iraq to dispose the dictatorship of Saddam Hussain and establish a regime friendly to the U.S which would help it consolidate it’s oil and energy interests and to gain crucial strategic ground in the energy rich Middle East is one such example from the recent time .Domestic clamour in the U.S among the elite class and some ultra-nationalists media groups towards a roboust foreign policy that serve the American interests and prolong it’s position as global super power even if it means disregarding others’ interests and violating their sovereignty ,is the reason for repeated U.S intervention in others’ affairs which has led to anti-American sentiments ,dis-trusts and suspicions globally .The colonialism by European nations which was at it’s peak during 19th century and continued till the half of the 20th century arised out the this very notion that in order to protect their own interest and accumulate vast wealth and resources ,they must occupy colonies and exploit their others.They subjugated and enslaved other states ,treated their men and women badly and inhumanely and took away their riches and vast natural resources over which they had the exclusive rights .

    While in contrast , Internationalism is something that opposes this very notion .It challenges the dominance of one over the other and promotes the idea of a world as a single unit that must work together to achieve a common goal of development and economic well being through mutual cooperations and respect to each other .It seeks to the agenda of development to all and promotion of peace and togetherness by shunning the rivalries between nations .This would mean sometimes, making compromises with self-interests and benefits for the larger good of the world and abandoning one’s own positions and goals in respect for others’ interests . a Internationalism first gained wide acceptance after World war 2 when the need for establishment of an institution that would act as the communication and platform for nations to come together and act as a coherent unit that would save the world from another major catastrophe and friction, was felt and this led to the formation of the international body by the name ,the United Nations (U.N) and later several multilateral bodies like Wold Bank,I.M.F and World Trade Organisation to promote dialogue, cooperation on economic front ,assist in development and tackle global problem of poverty,hunger and health issues which would ultimately lead to prevalence of global order, tackling of disputes and rivalries and respect to others sovereignty and freedom.

    Nationalism and internationalism may appear to be mutually exclusive but it is not so if looked closely .There is enough space for both of them to exists at the same time .Infact ,both can grow and prevail simultaneously without competing with each other .It is just a need for a wise vision ,pragmatism in policy ,mutual respect and shunning arrogance in order to make both of them equally prevalent .When nationalism crosses the boundary beyond which it is impossible to achieve one’s purpose without making others insecure and threatened ,the problem begins there.This often leads to intolerance, arrogance ,disregard to others , refusal to assimilate multiple culture and identities and ultimately frictions,dis-trusts and rivalries.
    Internationalism within nationalism itself ,is important for the maintenance of order in a state.A state whose people refuse to accept the culture and identities of others who belong to different ethnicity ,religions ,groups and places of origin, the state would be plagued with violence, disorder and unrests that would ultimately led to political instability, uncertainty and volatility which would ultimately hamper the development and the focus on good governance .Such situations are good for no one .It threatens the nation as a whole.Had it not been the attitude of tolerance and acceptance among the original inhabitants of European nations and states like Canada and America for people belonging to different colors ,faiths and culture, migrating there looking for new opportunities and settlements , these modern societies have not been so linguistically,culturally and ethnically diverse and would not have prospered that much.Even India where hundreds of dialects are spoken , multiple faiths are practiced and society is so diversified , has managed to stay united over because of this very notion.
    Internationalism which represents diversity is essential for the world as a whole to prosper as much as nationalism is for a nation to grow .The former promotes global order,mutual respect and regards ,feeling of togetherness and mutual cooperations ,all needed for common good and individuals nations to prosper.
    The prevalence of internationalism does not threaten nationalism .The former does not indemnify the later . Both can exists at the same time and need not to come at the cost of each other.There is enough room for both .Both can be made inclusive and the world must make an effort to stride in this very direction for long term benefit of human society.That precisely when the dream to make the world a global village would be realised.

    • pal

      Such a good command over the language u have…bravo! Really nice essay!

    • manish

      अच्छा लिखा जब मेरे निबंध से बेहतर है, बस आपने internationalism के उदाहरण नहीं दिए बस कहते गए , सिर्फ US, कनाडा, भारत की सांस्कृतिक विविधता का उदाहरण जो अच्छा है पर कम लगे ..ओवरall बढ़िया है

  • Aim2015

    “Just as the cult of patriotism teaches us today that the individual has to die for the family, the family has to die for the village, the village for the district, the district for the province, and the province for the country, even so country has to be free in order that it may die, if necessary, for the benefit of the world.” MAHATMA GANDHI

    Nationalism: Nationalism is a belief, creed or political ideology that
    involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one’s nation.
    Nationalism involves national identity, by contrast with the related construct
    of patriotism, which involves the social conditioning and personal behaviors
    that support a state’s decisions and actions.

    Internationalism: Internationalism is a movement which advocates a greater
    economic and political cooperation among nations for the theoretical benefit of
    all. Partisans of this movement, such as supporters of the World Federalist
    Movement, claim that nations should cooperate because their long-term mutual
    interests are of greater value than their individual short term needs.
    Internationalism is another reaction of the same general kind – and to the very
    same general circumstances. Like ‘nationalism’, it is far more ambiguous and
    complicated than the self-image in which it lives. Capitalist internationality
    generated both nationalism and internationalism, in fact, and since the rise
    and fall of Napoleon’s French Revolutionary Empire these political world-views
    have existed in permanent, uneasy tension with one another.

    Opposition: The ideal of many internationalists, among them world
    citizens, is to go a step further towards democratic globalization by creating
    a world government. However, this idea is opposed and/or thwarted by other
    internationalists, who believe any World Government body would be inherently
    too powerful to be trusted, or because they dislike the path taken by
    supranational entities such as the United Nations or the European Union and
    fear that a world government inclined towards fascism would emerge from the
    former. These internationalists are more likely to support a loose world
    federation in which most power resides with the national governments.

    Opposition and mutually exclusive nature
    Critics of nationalism have argued that it is often unclear what constitutes a “nation”, or why a nation should be the only legitimate unit of political rule. A nation is best viewed as a cultural entity and not a political association, nor as necessarily linked to a particular territorial area. But nationalists hold the opposite as self-evident: that the boundaries of a nation and a state should, as far as possible, coincide with only one culture within its boundaries; multi-culturalism is one of their first targets. Philosopher A.C. Grayling describes nations as artificial constructs, “their boundaries drawn in the blood of past wars”. He argues that “there is no country on earth which is not home to more than one different but usually coexisting culture. Cultural heritage is not the same thing as national identity”.

    Nationalism is inherently divisive because it highlights perceived differences between people, emphasizing an individual’s identification with their own nation. The idea is also potentially oppressive because it submerges individual identity within a national whole, and gives elites or political leader’s potential opportunities to manipulate or control the masses. Much of the early opposition
    to nationalism was related to its geopolitical ideal of a separate state for
    every nation.

    In the liberal political tradition there is widespread criticism of ‘nationalism’ as a dangerous force and a cause of conflict and war between nation-states. Nationalism has often been exploited to encourage citizens to partake in the nations’ conflicts. Such examples include the two World Wars, where nationalism was a key component of propaganda material. Liberals do not generally dispute the existence of the nation-states, although some liberal critiques do emphasize individual freedom as opposed to national identity.

    The pacifist critique of nationalism also concentrates on the violence of nationalist movements, the associated militarism, and on conflicts between nations inspired by jingoism or chauvinism. National symbols and patriotic assertiveness are in some countries discredited by their historical link with past wars, especially in Germany. Famous pacifist Bertrand Russell criticizes nationalism for diminishing the individual’s capacity to judge his or her fatherland’s foreign policy. Albert Einstein stated that “Nationalism is an infantile disease. … It is the measles of mankind.”

    For both intergovernmental organizations and international non-governmental organizations to emerge, nations and peoples had to be strongly aware that they shared certain interests and objectives across national boundaries and they could best solve their many problems by pooling their resources and effecting transnational cooperation, rather than through individual countries’ unilateral efforts. Such a view, such global consciousness, may be termed internationalism, the idea that nations and peoples should cooperate instead of preoccupying themselves with their respective national interests or pursuing uncoordinated approaches to promote them.

    I want to conclude by quote of Mahatma Gandhi “It is impossible for one to be internationalist without being a nationalist. Internationalism is possible only when nationalism becomes a fact, i.e., when peoples belonging to different countries have organized themselves and are able to act as one man. It is not nationalism that is evil, it is the narrowness, selfishness, exclusiveness which is the bane of modern nations which is evil. Each wants to profit at the expense of, and rises on the ruin of, the other. Indian nationalism has struck a different path. It wants to organize itself or to find full self-expression for the benefit and
    service of humanity at large… God having cast my lot in the midst of the people
    of India, I should be untrue to my Maker if I failed to serve them. If I do not
    know how to serve them I shall never know how to serve humanity. And I cannot
    possibly go wrong so long as I do not harm other nations in the act of serving
    my county.”

    • chandini

      Good one… and infirmative… the last humanist quote is very thought provoking, i think it is an excerpt from swamivivekananda… right?

    • Fazil Mohd

      avoid sentences like i want to conclude with a quote by………apart from that a very good piece

  • Anamika

    Nationalism and internationalism are opposing and mutually exclusive

    In June 2013, when Edward Snowden revealed about the acts of espionage by NSA on other countries of the world, he was perceived as disloyal or anti-national by his government. But for many of his co-nationals and other nationals took it as an attempt to work in favor of right to respect the sovereignty of other nations, truth and trust among nation and believe in
    humanity. Nationalism is often comprehended as a sense of loyalty to one’s own nation but with a twist of caring whether the nation is doing right or wrong. Everybody starts their life as an individual who has connections and commitments towards family, then locality, then city, state, country and the world in the last. So, it can be well defined that nationalism is the subset of internationalism.

    Literally, nationalism is always connected to the feeling of allegiance to a specific territory but conceptually, it is connected to humanity. It is about not only to sacrifice for the people of one’s own country but for the right. People of Syria aroused civil war against their own govt. can not be termed as anti-nationalist since they did that for a rational reason against the harsh policies of govt. to save their own people and country. Nationalism does not mean to progressing a country by harming another country, it is about advancing one’s own country at best without affecting other and that’s where internationalism comes to play its role. When one thinks of humanity and respecting the interests of other nation providing best to own
    nation, nationalism becomes subset of internationalism intersecting in almost every field.

    In this globalized world, economies of every country are interrelated and depend on decision of peer countries. There is a scenario of cooperating each other to advance own country and the many world organizations like WTO, UNESCO, NATO, BRICS, SAARC, Commonwealth group etc. are commendable examples. Had nationalism and internationalism opposed to each other, these groups would not have survived till date. Countries are relaxing their economic policies for foreign countries because of globalization and can’t stay in
    isolation on the name of nationalism. All parent nuclear countries have sign Non Proliferation treaty taking care of the world not only of their state. It is the result of internationalism that every nation is committed against terrorist organizations such as ISIS. UNSC has intervened in Syria to destroy chemical weapons just to save Syrian people and OPCW was awarded noble peace prize for the same.

    Indian philosophy of “Vasudhaiv Kutumbkam” which means “the whole world is my home” clearly demonstrates the relation among humanity and in turn human being of all countries. In the past also, states have helped each other for their liberation as India did in case of Bangladesh. NATO forces were deployed on Afghanistan to protect them and prepare them for counter against Taliban, a terrorist organization.

    Clearly, its humanity, economic, political and social conditions which force this world to remain interconnected. In 2014 Crimea, earlier a part of Ukraine succeeded to Russia. This can not be seen as a part of betraying Ukraine since it was the desire of economic prosperity and
    ethnic links with Russia acted as motivating forces behind it. One can accept internationalism as a voluntary phenomenon or a forced development due the globalization. Both indicates that nationalism and internationalism are not opposing and mutually exclusive and coordination between the two is necessary for world’s development.

    • Anamika

      Pls review…

      • Discipline9

        Simple, Small but Significant with striking examples.
        Good use of examples.
        Keep writing 🙂
        Kindly review my essay too.

        • Anamika

          Thank you and reviewed 🙂

    • shankar


      • Anamika

        Thank you.


      good one:)

      • Anamika

        Thank you for review.

    • p..k

      Gud ans,but covered only one aspect of ? asked
      Internationalism and nationalism are opposing-
      1.migration issue disturbing social fabric e.g., North-east India,many countries of Europe.
      2.indifference of developed world to take the responsibility of degradation of environment.
      3.discriminatory policies adopted by MNCs like more salaries to their nationals as compared to locals where they conducted production activities,Labour exploitation.

      • Anamika

        I also felt the need of including one paragraph favoring the given statement but as i have written that nationalism is subset of internationalism and focussed on it throughout the essay…..favoring the given statement would have been contradictory to my essay. So, avoided that.

        Thank you for review and suggestions are welcome.

      • sandeep prasad

        Good views but it needs more dimensions .1* In case of terrorism , those countries who are affected by terrorism supporting the international effort for their national interest, but those who are not affected by this they are silent. ..,

    • rakesh

      Great anamics

  • 6047

    Nationalism and internationalism are opposing and mutually exclusive.

    “Borders I have never seen one. But I have heard they exist in the minds of some.”
    – Thor Heyerdahl.
    the above statement dilutes the very sense of nationalism i.e a territorial identity; an identity which is based on notions of ethnic, religious or geographical location. here one may ask whether nationalism is opposite of internalism which is about being more accommodative and acceptive with respect to other foreign interests and does both these ideologies are mutually separate.
    here in this essay we will analyse that whether these two aspect and establish that in actuality both strenthen each other and overlap each others domain. for instance true nationalism is not about people but ideas; it is about one’s assertion rather than aggression; it is sensitive but not touchy; it can be about solitude but not loneliness; the real nationalist discuss rather than argue; most importantly they enjoy their freedom with a sense of discipline. let us examine in what way these attributes of the nationalist thinking takes place in the international domain.
    in the primitive era when the first humans migrated the earth has no territories but as the human became man, the earth was pierced and cut into pieces and the false sense of nationalism prevailed. just think would not it be prudent if the jute crops of Bangladesh support the jute industry of India or does the Kukis living on both side of the border in Mizoram happy. some may support this state of affairs in the name of national territorial integrity, but someone needs to answer can the condition not be much better. certainly the answer is affirmative; one just need to see the national perspective through the glasses of internalism. if we fail to do so then in rage of protecting the national interest we will ultimately end up destroying it, for instance as per George Kennan USA pursue such nationalism and can be described as- ” with a body as long as this room and a brain the size of a pin; he lies there in his comfortable primeval mud and pays little attention to his environment; he is slow to wrath, in fact you practically have to whack his tail off to make him aware that his interest are being disturbed; but, once he grasps this, he lays about him with such a blind determination that he not only destroys his adversary but largely wrecks his native habitat”. this makes amply clear that nationalism needs internalism for his own benefit and can not be opposite but complementary and inclusive.
    this is not only true for the social sphere but in the economic sphere also. for e.g. an economic nationalism refers to self-sufficiency and protection of indigenous industries. but perhaps this is a superficial nationalism as the true sense is of providing an enabling environment so that better and bigger opportunities are available to the natives. i.e an internationalistic perspective for national development. just think that there is no denial of positive effects of globalization if the infrastructure bottlenecks are addressed. for instance a engine made in China, assembled in India and sold in Europe is beneficial for each and every nation. the growing acceptance of WTO and efforts for multilateral agreements is the proof of this. certainly, here also one can conclude the national economic interest are in line with internalism and also mutually inclusive. however, one can ask raise questions regarding job security, and protection of indigenous business; these fear are temporary as the history suggests that international cooperations are always enabling and enriching for local communities and if utilised then the local communities became competitive enough too.

    in addition to this, the domain of environment whether, it is climatic, social or security related can not be national alone. for instance climate change at one place has a global effect which not only distributed along the spatial but temporal respect also. like the repercussions of the industrial revolution is still felt today. not only this the international threats like terrorism, drug trafficking, arms smuggling and sectarian hatred, pandemic like ebola, discrimination against women and vulnerable sections can only contain if the nationalist of the world has the internationalist perspective, i.e through UN, WHO, UNFCC, CEDAW etc.

    so internationalism and nationalism should be seen as mutually conducive and complementary rather than opposite and exclusive. in the words of Gandhi ji, ” for me nationalism is same as humanity; I am nationalism because I am human and humane.” the sense of this statement is also echoed in the Vedic internalism spirit i.e-
    “Avam bandhurayam Neti Ganana Laghuchetasam,
    Udaracharitanam tu Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam.”
    i.e for those who live magnanimously the entire world constitutes but a family. thus becomes ample clear that true nationalism is inclusive to internalism and can not be opposite.

  • Discipline9

    Capturing and seizing the boats of the neighboring countries’ fishermen to protect the livelihood of domestic fishermen, frequent promises of national leaders to curtail the immigration in border states to address the locals concern of increased competition for employment, decades-long negotiations in World Trade Organization’s multilateral forums are frequent news items which
    surface every now and then in the media. They will make any concerned reader to raise the question “Is the gain of one nation loss for the other nation?” or “Is Internationalism against nationalism?”.

    Though the concern is right, the question failed to take the notice of nuances and/or variations associated with the definition,
    understanding and interpretations of nationalism and internationalism. So it is necessary to examine the concepts of nationalism and Internationalism in detail.

    Though nationalism is not entirely modern phenomenon, it became prominent in the wake of quest for nation-states in Europe in the late 19th century. Notwithstanding the fact that nation and nation-states are different, the craving for expansion of the nation-state derives legitimacy from the imperial or narrow definition and interpretation
    of nationalism.

    This imperialistic mindset of European countries like Britain, France and Spain made them believe in mercantilism-One nation
    should be exploited for the gain of other nation. They established colonies in Asia, Africa and South America. Their economic policies ruined the industries of colonies and maximized profits for metropolis. So, for the imperialistic and narrow nationalists nationalism is opposite and mutual exclusive to the good of other nations.

    But this very oppression by imperialists in colonies gave birth to a new nationalism. This new nationalism, in Gandhi’s words,
    wants to organize itself or to find self-expression for the benefit and service of humanity at large. In line with this ideology, when India became independent Nehru brought forward the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) whose ideals enlivened the right spirit of nationalism. NAM respected the sovereignty of all nations
    including then newly independent former colonies. Thus the new nationalism, which is broad in interpretation, is a shift away from the narrow nationalism.

    Soon, even the Imperial countries understood the costs and repercussions associated with narrow nationalism from the Second
    World War. The establishment of United Nations Organization seeking to establish International Peace and collective growth in 1946 stands as testimony for the efforts to get rid of imperial interpretation and embrace the empathetic and broad nationalism.

    Since then, UNO continues to realize the true spirit of Internationalism. So, what is Internationalism?.The very term
    internationalism endorses the idea that as a concept it recognizes the nations as sovereign bodies. Its main objective is to explore the options and find solutions that benefit all nations and serve the entire mankind. Internationalism is not antagonistic to nationalism. It does not rob the peter to pay the paul. Internationalism reconciles the conflicting interests of nations.

    UN tribunal – the Permanent Court of arbitration, UN Security Council and WTO are some of the bodies that seek to promote Internationalism. The recent case of India-Bangladesh maritime dispute is the case in point. India gracefully accepted the judgment of UN tribunal maritime award to Bangladesh. Both countries said that they can build a new era of understanding and cooperation
    as the clouds of uncertainty got cleared.

    In addition, the recent WTO agreement on trade facilitation is a major breakthrough confirming the power of negotiations and
    internationalism. India along with other developing countries could made a fair deal by winning the required time period for continuation of food-security their citizens. Without these forums that promote Internationalism, world would have been unfair falling prey to the exploitative, narrow nationalism of developed nations.

    Ofcourse, it is not to say that everything is well with the existing institutions and forums. World bank and IMF are allegedly dominated by developed western nations despite continuously increasing and significant contribution of developing countries from Asia, Africa and Latin America. Intervention of western countries in oil-rich countries in the middle east is nothing but the reverberations of narrow nationalism.

    UN security council reforms are long-awaited.India , despite its huge contribution for peace keeping missions and representing 17% of the population, is losing by some countries with narrow nationalistic mindset. Pakistan is not willing to accept India’s rights over Sir Creek even after UN tribunal’s award . These examples prove that narrow nationalism continues to rear its head.

    Countries would do well to recognize that the narrow nationalism is a zero sum game. Moreover, both nations will eventually
    pay the costs. For example, western countries may think that they gained some billions of monetary benefits from Middle East countries but the fact is that they spent equal amount for their earlier military operations in those nations, lost some of their citizens and in future, they will have to repeat the same for getting rid of Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). World War-II is another example from the past. So, narrow nationalism is detrimental to the mankind. It is opposite and exclusive to Internationalism.

    Internationalism, on the other hand, is in line with the broad view of nationalism which is narrow , which does not seek to grow on the ruins of other nation. Both of them look for win-win situation
    which should motivate the nations.

    • Anamika

      very good essay covering all the aspects and maintaining continuity among paragraphs.

      But throughout the essay u focussed on nationalism and internationalism not on their relation….u only concluded their relation. i think u should have mentioned little more about the topic i.e. relation between them. (Personal opinion not an expert one).

      • Discipline9

        thanks for the review..I will consider your remarks.

  • Tandon

    Please review!! 🙂

  • Mahi


    Nationalism is a very old concept and was at peak during the 20th century, when the
    world was crying with the harass oppression of imperialist and capitalist nation. Nationalism is the political concept about having the nation own identity and freedom which does not undermine the freedom of other nation. It’s in the line to best serve the humanity and its principals. Nationalism is often linked with Patriotism which says – individual serves his family, family serves the village, village serves the district, district serve the state, state serve the nation and nation serve the humanity. Thus in order to serve the humanity nation freedom is must.

    Indian Nationalism during Struggle for Independence

    The stages of Indian Struggle for Independence is the evolution of nationalism in India. Some of the important features of this evolution were – Swaraj, Satagragh and Non-Violence, People Participation, etc which emphasis on the core principals of nationalism – self-rule and self-govern; people rights, involvement, acceptance and harmony; not harming other nation freedom and keeping peaceful and health relation with other etc


    Internationalism is recent development emerged majorly in 20th century after the First
    World War and since them it evolving continuously. Internationalism is about unity, common actions, and goals with cooperative and supportive actions of various nation. It emerged with concept of bringing peace, harmony, stability in the world and avoiding the any destructive action which lead to the killing of humanity. Internationalism does not restrict to a particular boundary rather it comprises everyone and believe in taking everyone together by uniting their identity.

    Internationalism and International Organization

    Bodies like United Nation, World Bank, International Monitory Funds, National Atlanic Treaty
    Organization, and South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation etc are international organization with its member working in cooperative manner in order to benefit everyone. They are pooling the resource of multiple nations to achieve the greater goods for the society which would not achieved at being in isolation. Some of the important recent event which demand urgent need of having greater internationalism – Terrorism, cross border illegal migration, smuggling and trafficking, economic crimes, climatic change and environment crisis etc.

    Nationalism Vs Internationalism – Opposing

    Nationalism and Internationalism are not the same though both emphasis on the betterment of humanity, there is fundamental difference between the founding principles. On one hand
    where nationalism demand for the identity of self, international dilutes the individual identity for the common and greater good. Nationalism though not against any race, religion or region but it’s more about a particular regional identity and their freedom whereas the internationalism is being having a united identity. Nationalism emerged as disintegration from imperialist and capitalist nation control and giving more power to colonies or acquired territories whereas internationalism emerged as integration of control and thus leading concentration of power. Nationalism lead to independence and freedom where as Internationalism lead to interdependence .Thus Nationalism and Internationalism are opposing but both has their own domains to operation in different situations.

    Nationalism Vs Internationalism – mutually exclusive

    Nationalism is more about localisation where internationalism is focused more on globalisation. Nationalism exist at national or country level where internationalism exist at above country level. Nationalism try to achieve the unity through voluntary separation (aim
    of which is to smash the oppression and control of imperialist) where Internationalism try to achieve the unity with voluntary association (various nationalities uniting on ac completely voluntary basis after imperialist oppression has been eliminated). There both are existing in different context therefore both are mutually exclusive

    Thus Nationalism and Internationalism are would be supportive to each other for the purpose of humanity if applied with clear demarcation of areas. Nationalism is important for good governance, social and political development, conservation of culture, values and diversity whereas internationalism is important for security (Terrorism), balance environment, economic
    development, science and technology development, education and skill development, etc.

  • chandini

    Nice one…

  • manish

    हिंदी माध्यम -Nationalism and internationalism are opposing and mutually exclusive


  • Alok

    Nationalism and internationalism are opposing and Mutually exclusive:-
    When a large group of people come together from similar history culture,ideals,philosophy for a common aspiration in life and show an allegiance to a particular part of land ,it is called Nationalism.Today we see different forms of manifestation of nationalism.Internationalism is when different country come together and associate with each other in highest possible manner.When the driving force of the world is thinking about the progress of entire humanity in all possible direction.Then it can be called true internationalism.
    Is nationalism and Internationalism are opposing and mutually exclusive?I think it’s other way round.without strong nationalism, where people come together as one man at global platform to discuss,learn and be a part of the overall progress of the humanity,Internationalism is not possible.Internationalism doesn’t mean only boundary less countries where people have access to every other country.Internationalism is truly when people learn to respect others no matter of which race,creed,sex,religion he belongs to.It means Putting your national interest such that it is aligned to the global aspiration of the people.A strong nation can be a helping hand for other who is lagging behind and can help them pull out of misery.And this is possible only when the country has true nationalistic character who believes that serving it’s country and people is serving entire humanity.
    In today’s time we see numerous conflicting example of Nationalism and internationalism Like:-On the issue of environmental degradation:-Developed nations wants to exploit it for their means but put the responsibility on poor underdeveloped/developing nation for the environment protection. Similarly there is multi national companies which operates globally but don’t pay the wages to their employ as much as the pay in their home country. Similarly the international organisations like world bank.IMF etc were established for the development of entire world which now has become puppet of certain developed countries.In many instances we have seen United nations decision getting influenced by some of strong countries of the world.These bodies were made to establish true internationalism of a peaceful ,economically prosperous world order,But seeing them today it certainly creates a doubt in the mind of people, whether it is possible that nationalism can go hand in hand with internationalism ?
    But there are examples in which world has progress and shows that both nationalism and internationalism can go together and it is essential for the survival and progress of the humanity.The different countries of the world are coming together on the same platform for fighting terrorism like:-ISIS,al-queda.Boko-Haram. Countries are opening their market for the global investors and companies for business.Laws are being made which gives level playing field for all whether domestic or international businessmen.Countries are signing nuclear non-proliferation treaty with the aim of saving the world from useless nuclear arm race.These examples clearly shows that we are coming out of narrow nationalist views of “My Country and My People” to “My world and entire Humanity” .
    In fact the doctrine of Internationalism is enshrined in basic Indian philosophy where it is said ” Vasudhev Kutumkab”.That means the entire world is my family.So not only now but India has believed in the philosophy of internationalism for centuries.
    So allegiance to one’s family to city, then state,country and the world is right but we should also be watch dog, so that our my allegiance doesn’t go wasteful.I.e if my country is doing something wrong which affects the rights and sovereignty of others, we will stand against it for the protection of the entire humanity.So a healthy and prosperous nationalism is when it can accommodate the doctrine of internationalism in itself that’s “Well being of one nation lies in the well being of entire humanity”.So we should work for the well being of entire humanity ,our national interest will be achieved on its own.

  • gloryoflife

    i want to ask that i will appear in upsc 2016 so first i should finish the core syllabus then practice essay or side by side please guide me ,i hve some doubt bec i am preparing myself.