3) Discuss the spatial pattern of intra-regional migration in India and examine its implications in regional development

Topic: Population and related issues;

3) Discuss the spatial pattern of intra-regional migration in India and examine its implications in regional development. (200 Words)

http://www.ncert.nic.in/NCERTS/textbook/textbook.htm?legy2=1-12

http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/where-prosperity-poverty-coexist/article6846349.ece

  • BISMARCK

    After India’s independence, it developed under model of growth pole.Under this model, few centres are identified and developed as ideal city and the surrounding region slowly gains momentum of development by trickle down effect.This had created metropolitan cities at four corner of India and subsequently few more emerged.
    Intra regional migration in India is evidence of the fact that its growth pole model has not fetched as per expected results.Aspirations of surrounding region people is still unmet.The spatial pattern of these migrations can be illustrated by:
    1)Delhi region: including states like Punjab,Haryana,parts of western UP,attract poor people from almost all parts of country but especially UP,Bihar,Rajasthan etc.
    2)kolkata-Guwahati region:attract people from Bihar-jharkhand,west bengal,assam,orissa,Northeast states,UP etc
    3)Mumbai-pune region: attracts UP,Bihar,Gujarat,Rajasthan,MP public mainly.
    4)Chennai-Bangalore-Hyderabad region mainly attracts educated sections from rest of India.
    5) other regions like kerala,Tamil Nadu attracts cheap labourers from UP,Bihar etc

    Implications of intra regional migration in regional development:
    Economic:
    1)excess load on regional infrastructure like houses,transportation,school,hospitals,police etc
    2)sharing of regional resources ,sometimes depriving local population of their right.
    3)Unemployment leading to poverty.
    Social:
    1)Cultural and lifestyle difference sometimes lead to conflicts.
    2)change in demography may lead to loosening of social cohesiveness.
    Political:
    1)immigration may alter political ambition of local population.
    2)Polarization of politics to influence migrants to attract their vote.
    3)Local problems of development sidelined.

    Intra regional migrations are not always disadvantageous.With increase in competition,quality of service also increases.Government is forced to provide sufficient infrastructure to regions at both end, resulting in overall development.It also creates environment of multicultural society which ultimately results in cosmopolitan society ex Mumbai.
    India is an emerging world power with literacy and employment level rising constantly.This will certainly reduce intra migration of people.It only requires strong conviction and support by political leaders and masses.

    • Vijay

      Intra regional : Regions should have same culture.Is it not so?

      • BISMARCK

        yes i made blunder mistake 🙁

        • sri sri

          blunder mistake???? again u did a mistake lol…..

      • Csha Nambiar

        Please redefine intra regional cos google seems vague with its answers. If it means within a state, it doesnt necessarily mean homogeneous culture.

        • BISMARCK

          i think it is not related to culture as one region can have many culture depending on how region is defined.

        • Guest

          As far as I believe ,for cultural sense ,it may be homogeneous or with less diversions as scale of region of concern should be in smaller subset.

        • Neha Dubey

          intra regional /internal migration refers to migration within the country.

  • Vivgrn

    Intra regional migration: Migration in the same region.

    The point of observation is region, which can be inside a state, between two states or between two nations, on the way region is defined.

    Examples:

    Inside a state: Jharkhand, where migration occurs from naxal- infested areas and tribal belts to pockets of development

    Between states: To Mumbai from Bihar and UP; from North- East to other parts of India, from Bengal to other parts of India

    Reasons for Migration:

    1) Better economic opportunities in particular pockets

    2) Better law and order situation in other areas

    Results:

    1) Enclave type formation of native areas

    2) Increase in relative poverty and increase variation in all HDIs between natives now in enclave and others. Increased polarization of development. Marginalization and un-equal development

    3) Loss of majority of the natives and hence change in political environment

    4) Increased disparity can lead to rise in violent movements eg. naxalism

    5) Leads to feeling of inequality and high-handedness of state

    6) Loss of culture of the natives/ Evolution of a new culture

    7) Loss of livelihood, blue-collarization/ labourization/ womanization of agriculture

    • Vivgrn

      Please review.

      • Ekta Beniwal

        you did not mention pros. As question asked about implications,i believe it should be included.

    • Dipra

      nice

  • 6047

    Migration is process which is induced by push and pull factors and guided by socio-economic-cultural compulsions; for e.g. poverty, livelihood incentives etc. in india both inter and intra regional migration is guided by the above factors. however intra-regional migration pattern can be understood as-

    1) this is mainly the rural to rural migration of women due to marriage compulsions.
    2)intra regional mainly dominant in those areas where relatively more progress has happened for e.g. western maharastra, western U.P , Punjab etc.
    3) intra-regional migrants follow a very steep distance decay function as they migrate farther the utility of migration goes on decreasing.

    however migration has positive and negative both effects on regional development; for-
    1) at the source region there is loss of human asset and destination gains. however there is remittances received by the source region which help in its development.
    2) more mover it also cause demographic imbalances as predominately one gender migrate.
    3) overall, such a migration is positive as resources traded intra-regionally and this accelerate regional development.

    nevertheless there is a need to minimize the intra regional migration also, as many time it generate identity crisis and cultural alienation; sustainable efforts such as PURA ( providing urban amenities in rural areas ) need to be augmented so a harmonize development can take place.

    • Born for ias

      could have added morepoints for pros and cons,keeping within world limit,
      conclusion is good

  • Guest

    Pls review

  • Csha Nambiar

    Migration is a centuries old process that is an integral part of adaptation and evolution and applies to several creatures other than man. Migrants move from one region to another in hope of a better life. Intra regional migration in India continues to be influenced by a large number of factors. It is these factors that determine the area migrated to :

    1 Urbanization – Cities such as Delhi Mumbai Calcutta and Chennai are teeming with opportunities in various spheres such as job and education. They are therefore areas with high concentrations of people with their hometowns elsewhere.

    2 Natural Resources – The Indo Gangetic Plain and the Ganga Brahmaputra delta are one of the most densely populated regions on the planet. Fertile lands and availability of water has led to the movement of people from surrounding regions in search of areas suitable for
    intensive cultivation.

    3 Stability – Peace and safety are synonymous with a thriving population. Several natives of violence infested states such as Jammu Kashmir prefer to migrate to calm regions where they can live content lives.

    The implications of intra regional migration in regional development are many, some negative but mostly positive

    1 Rapid Development – A larger population means a larger workforce which may be skilled or unskilled. This human resource in the hands of good leaders puts a pep in the rate of the region’s economic development

    2 Pressure on Resources – Increasing density of population means more mouths to feed. This puts pressure on the host region’s natural and economic resources in an attempt to provide adequate civil facilities. When the in-flowing population begins to overtake the region’s capacity to absorb, it results in problems such as slum settlements.

    3 Diversity – The co existence of various communities from different regions may result in both acceptance and conflicts. Cosmopolitan cities are a source of pride for the nation as these depict the willingness of people from diverse backgrounds to live together keeping differences aside.

    Migration of people in search of water lead to the rise of civilizations around the world in close proximity to rivers and the Indus valley civilization as one of the oldest of these civilizations is where the base of Indian history sits.

    • Alice

      I completely missed the stability part, thanks for reminding me, excellent & succinct answer !

      • Csha Nambiar

        Thank you Alice! That’s enough motivation to get me writing for several days at a stretch 😛

    • Vijay

      It looks your answer points to general migration pattern rather than thrust on “intra regional migration”

      • Csha Nambiar

        Interregional Migration Definition: Permanent movement from one region of a country to another.
        Intraregional Migration Definition: Permanent movement within one region of a country.
        You are right, the answer Ive written, just like that of everyone else here makes more sense under inter regional migration ie movement within India 🙂

        • pavan choudhary

          u cover topic in different way and trying to cover real cause like..river basin..i think good answer

    • BISMARCK

      good points esp stability which is very much in current scenario for minorities.

    • Piyush Singh

      Genral point wise it’s best…but according to question u r miles away from answer …pls don’t try this one in exam..otherwise u wud print negative impression on examiner …hope u got it….keep writing:)

    • HBK

      I read in an NCERT about “Marriage” as a single most important reason of Intra-regional migration.
      I think we must relate it with everything we write.

  • amitesh

    Review plzzz

    • Csha Nambiar

      Please edit the image before posting. Most people wont take the effort to read and my neck hurts 😛 You have a lovely answer here and a great handwriting 🙂

      • amitesh

        I will better things next time

  • Vijay

    Intra regional migration refers to migration within a particular region,state or district.
    In India spatial pattern of intra regional migration is due to Push and Pull factors like:
    Marriage : Mostly dominant in Rural to Rural ,within same cities etc.Female migration is dominant in short distance migration .
    Employment and other facilties :Mostly dominted by male members from Rural to Urban,backward districts to developed districs/region where opportunities of employment,education,health etc are available.

    These spatial patterns of migration can be observed in:
    ———————————————————————-
    In states like Jharkhand,West Bengal Maharastra ,more and more people are migrating to cties like Bokaro and Jamshedpur (Jharkhand),Durgapur and Kolkata (WB) and Mumbai and Pune (Maharastra) from backward districts where large industries and better employment and other facilities are present.Same pattern is being observed within districts also where people are migrating from Rural areas to Towns.
    While in some states like Bihar ,UP and North Eastern states etc who are economically less developed more migration is in the form of Inter regional migration to developed cities in various parts of country while in developed states like Karnataka,Maharastra,Andhra Pradesh dominant pattern of migration is intra-regional type.

    Implications on regional development
    ————————————————–
    Intra regional development can have mixed results for a region.
    Pros
    ——
    1.Availability of labor for industries in destination region
    2.More and more population will be working in formal sector contributing to GDP
    3.Availability of better wages,health and educational facilities for migrants
    4. Elimination of disguised unemployment present in traditional agricultural system
    Cons

    ——–
    1.Burden on infrastructure of destination region
    2.Due to competition for jobs ,it may result into violent activities
    3.Paucity of labor in source regions
    4.Demography getting skewed in source and destination regions
    5.Rise of slums in destination regions

    • pravi

      Nice answer.

    • The perfect answer

    • ThirdEye

      local-nonlocal conflicts, exploitation by middlemen, no ration(change in residence),increased atrocities on migrated women and caste discrimination can also be added under Cons. And good answer

      • Roshan Tiwari

        caste and identity conflict…

    • aman

      Nicely written.

  • Akshay

    1. Female population from rural to rural areas, urban to urban areas- due to marriage.
    2. Male population from rural to urban areas/ developed regions- due to employment opportunities.
    3. Rural population moving to urban regions.

    Implications-
    1. Availability of labour to developed regions
    2. imbalanced regional development.
    3. Slums and other poor enclaves in developed regions.
    4. Burden upon existing infra in developed regions like transport facilities.
    5. Demographic changes like less male population in rural areas leaving their wives behind in villages.

  • Galaxy2015

    Movement of people from one region to other within the political limits of an area is termed as Intra-regional migration.
    The intra- regional migration has followed a definite spatial pattern in India which is
    1.rural-rural(from less productive areas to agriculture rich areas due to imbalanced growth of agriculture )
    2. rural-urban(from villages to cities and towns for better opportunity),
    3. urban-urban( for better opportunity),and
    4. urban-rural(largely of old age people after retirement)
    in decreasing order.

    It’s Implications in regional development are:-
    1.rural-rural migration
    it is mostly of poor people and it becomes difficult for government to track real beneficiaries of it various poverty alleviation programs.
    2.rural to urban
    This migration is associated with all kinds of problems are:-
    a.due to less availability of space in urban areas , problems of housing leads to development of slums.
    b. overcrowding leads to poor availability of services like health,sanitation,drinking water etc.
    c. more pressure on existing services like transportation etc.
    d.Since majority of rural-urban migrants in India are male it leads to skewed sex ratio in both regions.
    e.On the positive side it ensures availability of labour for various activities.

    Rural-rural and urban-rural been less in does not pose any serious challenge to regional development.

    • RAJ KAMAL VATSA

      I liked your answer especially the first part of the question ie spatial distribution.
      in the second part which asks to examine I think ur answer lacks susbtance. You have only mentioned negative sides, with just a passing ref to one positive factor.
      Also conclusion is missing.

      But I guess this is because of word limit else your first part tells that you are capable of writing much better ans.. keep writing 🙂

      • Galaxy2015

        thanks…
        and yes I should have made points in a better way for second part..

    • sri sri

      commendable work…..keep writing..but u forgot to mention marriage ,main cause of intra regional migration

  • govardhan

    Right from human evolution migration had become part of
    life. In fact cradle of indian civilazation harappa and mohanjedero were urban
    centres .If it was agriculture that made people migrate in the ancient times,
    trade centres and religious centres in the medieval times.

    Modern times saw intra regional migration on a large scale
    for variety of reasons. Employment,health facilities and better life prospects were the pull factors,poverty and lack of amenities
    were the push factors.Metropolitans like
    mumbai,calcutta,madras,delhi and indutrial
    locations like chotanagpur region, guragon-delhi corridor, bangalore-chennai
    region etc continue to attract people from the surrounding areas for these very
    reasons.

    Intra regional migrations put a lot of stress on the scanty
    resources.over population results in unemployment, poverty and slum development which in turn lead to unsanitary
    conditons and spread of diseases.Now a days these centres are the most
    polluting corridors thereby putting human lives at risk.

    On the positive note intra regional migration fosters amalgation
    of different classes and thereby reduces
    the social differences.

    Pl review. This is my first.

    • Neha Dubey

      @ govardhan

      Nice try…u cud escape the first paragraph…coz 200 words answer wont permit u to write such introductions…
      try giving the answer a logical structure too… as the answer has many points but lacks coherence//

      keep writing

  • Joseph Stalin

    Both , Pushes of Poverty ,Unemployment , No-government Support, Lack of oppurtunities and Pull of Employment , Better Facilities,Avenues alter the Spatial Distribution of Migration .

    Such Spatial Distribution also have linkages with the Physical [types of terrain and climate,weather etc],socio economic [trade centres ,Urbanisation etc] and Historical factors {colonisation , civilisation ]

    Government Support towards the Backward disricts are basically premised over these factors like Recent MNRega For 200 most backward districts . However In the recent Study it has been found that India Districts are Polarised Districts where prosperity and poverty co-exist in sub districts of same District.Thus such government action may not give the desired results

    Some of points of Ponder from the Above report which can help In govt policies for backwardness
    ~Not Districts but Sub districts targeting shall be way forward
    ~Tribal Presence can be Linked to Backwardness Given Apart , 75% of backward districts have tribal presence
    ~Development and Backwardness have a relation need to deciphered , for instance Mining Areas have presence of Tribal people poor and Backward.

    Recent Report On regional Disparities can serve as gliding Path for the New NITI aayog aimed to transform India

    • BISMARCK

      stalin babu ….soviet ko sahi raste pe rakhne me aap nakaam rhe …

      • Joseph Stalin

        Aap yeh toh Dekho , Akela Desh baki sab ki “le” raha hai Aur dukh ki baat toh Yeh h Bharat to Diamond dete k baad me US se arms khrid rha h
        Wrote Q1 just now last line you will be impressed

        • BISMARCK

          aap mere wakya ka artha nhi samajh paae….actually thoda qstn se bhataka hua answer lag rha h 😀

          • Joseph Stalin

            Hmmmmm 😛 😀
            Samjh me toh abhi bhi ni arha , Aap Kripya thoda bataye ki kya likhe taki Current report Shah ji ki bhi aa jaye aur ques ki demand b ho jaye

  • Mithrandir

    Answer: To bring inclusive growth in both letter and spirit, we must focus on both national as well as regional development. But it is practically not possible to develop whole nation/region equally pertaining to variety of reasons like availablity of natural resources, Human resources, transportation facility, climate etc. Because of underdevelopment of one region while development of other region nearby. Hence, leads to spatial pattern of intra-regional migration. This is often visible through:

    1. Differences in literacy rate, sanitation, gender equality in two parts of same district.

    2. Difference in priority based on populations/revenue and hence public welfare programme efficiency is poor in under-developed area because of lack of public officials and infrastructure.

    Implication on regional development

    1.) Mass scale migration will distort the agricultural productivity of region.

    2.) Migration to better developed area may affect the quality of public goods like schooling, traffic, hospitals etc.

    3.) If poor people will migrate to other areas away from their native, then they may be devoid with PDS subsidy and other welfare programs.

    Hence, migration from lesser developed to more developed region leads to lesser jobs in urban areas. Instead govt should focus on providing economic oppurtunity in lesser developed area which will act as pull factor.

    • siva

      well

  • Anit ifs

    Inter spatial migration is affected due to various push and pull factors. Push factors like disasters, lack of employment, poverty, overpopulation and pull factors like economic growht, good governance etc. lead to migration from poorer to richer areas.

    The intra state migration is dominated by males trying to find new work opportunities. These are mainly rural to urban migrants. The women dominate the inter state migrants as they go for marriage etc.

    Agricultural labrourers are seen going towards Haryana, Punjab etc. from Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand. They send back remittances that sustain their state economies and also fill crucial labour demands.

    The large scale migration results in deprivation of home economies of skilled worksmen in era of globalised talent pool. This reinforces the regional developmental differences. The migrating individuals crowd out the natives and sometimes lead to animosity. But they also are a source of increasing devlopment and productivity.The global regime of migration has led to exchange of ideas, cultures, languages and has allowed the talented individuals to forge ahead.

    Perhaps the time has come to equalise the negatives by helping making jobs in rural sectors productive and encouraging alternative centres of development.

  • nida quadeer

    Intra regional migration means migration within region may be state or district. There are various reasons like education, marriage,natural calamity but people migrate mainly for better economic opportunities and prosperity.
    The pattern of the intraregional migration depends on the economical and social factors of the source and destination:-

    Economical factors – For employment peoples move to industrialized and developed areas i.e. .cities like Mumbai,Calcutta, Delhi , Chennai and industrial regions like Mumbai-Pune Region, Gujarat Region,Chotanagpur Region, Gurgaon-Delhi-Meerut Region etc attract people from the nearby areas for better economical options.
    The Indo Gangetic Plain and the Ganga Brahmaputra delta also attract people from surrounding regions because of the its fertile lands and availability of water which is suitable for intensive cultivation.

    Social factors – Violence and conflicts drive people away from their homes. Large number of people migrate in nearby areas due to disturbed conditions in hometown.For better education also rural people have to migrate to the neighboring urban centres.

    The implications of intra regional migration in regional development :-

    Positive implication-

    1- integration of nation and minimizing social differences.
    2- development of source region by remittance sent by emigrants.
    3- availability of manpower
    4- Availability of better wages,health and educational facilities for migrants

    Negative implication-

    1- scarcity of labor in source region
    2- development of slums
    3- pressure on infrastructure of urban areas and increase in pollution & diseases.
    4- alteration in sex ratio both in rural & destination region as most of the migrants are male.

    • nida quadeer

      PLZ REVIEW

  • prashanth

    Intra-regional migration refers to migration within the region or a state either from rural to rural , rural to urban, urban to rural , urban to urban.
    The migration of this sort also like any other is motivated mostly for economic reasons which could be termed as a pull factor and migration due to lack of facilities ranging from better jobs to basic human facilities which could be termed as push factor.
    This sort of migration is more predominant in case of women in the case marriages and is more especially for man in case of inter-regional for economic purposes.
    Let it be intra or inter , populations mostly divert to places where they can find jobs and have a relatively peaceful life
    Thus migration provides much needed labor but at the same time puts a lot of pressure on infrastructure of the destination region.
    During times of heavy migration it could lead to conflicts for limited jobs, also making the source region at a deficit of labor though remittances would be appreciated.
    But it has great prospects towards educating the next generation, but at the same time could lead to formation of slums.
    Therefore it is the work of the government to realize this trend and provide opportunities in the source region, also regulation is a must as it has potential to skewed labor force.

  • RAJ KAMAL VATSA

    Intra regional migration refers to arrival or departure of people into or away from one place to another within a region.It is generally because of push -pull factors which are mostly economic and social in nature.Such migrations do have a bearing on regional development in both positive and negative manners.

    Pattern of migration: from rural to urban

    1. Economic factors: Rural areas and least developed towns provide very little opportunities as regards full time employment and efficient services. Urban areas in contrast offer more and hence attract people. This has been a major factor for people from Bihar, UP , Odisha etc to move to nearby metros.

    2. Marital obligations: Generally after marriage females shift to their in-laws place. This trend although isn’t dominant now but still prevalent and is witnessed in rural areas.

    3. Relative anonymity: Urban areas offer relative anonymity to migrants so one is easily able to hide his caste and other personal details which is not possible in rural areas.

    Although people do return to their native place i.e. from urban to rural due to retirement or other emotional compulsions but it is not a dominant trend in our societies.

    These migrations have resulted in people around development rather than development around people. No doubt excess immigration has resulted in slums and other over-population related challenges. Metros such as Delhi , Mumbai etc are unable to fulfill even the basic demands of its inhabitants. Cities do expand which gives rise to range of issues like inflation etc.

    But it can also not be denied that such immigration are the causal factor behind rapid urbanization in India. New metros are emerging rapidly and their economies thrives. Residents of the urban areas get a host of benefits and inevitable services from rural unskilled migrants.

    Of late these issues have been identified and there is a lot of buzz about 100 smart cities. Also rurban initiatives have been identified so that people needn’t leave their native places. To address the issues of slums in cities, Central govt has promised brick and mortar dwellings which should tackle all infrastructure related issues by 2022.

  • prayas

    Please review

  • anvit

    ntra
    regional migration refers to the migration from one region to another
    either due to push or pull factors. In India the spatial pattern is
    mostly concentrated in the urban industrialized areas due to better
    economic opportunities.

    Migration is a consequence of uneven distribution of opportunities
    over space and time.It affects both the areas of migration from and
    migrated to. Implications in regional development

    Economic – remittances , overcrowding and slums due to deregulation

    Demographic –
    redistribution of population in terms of age, sex and lead to higher
    productive labor to urban areas degrading the rural economy.

    Social – intermixing of different cultures , diffusion of new ideas and tech to rural areas

    Environmental
    – overcrowding puts excessive pressure on the social and physical
    infra leading to unplanned settlements and slums

  • Chhavi

    Intra-regional migration refers to migration within a particular region say
    a state or zone. factors behind intra-regional migration in India can be
    classified into push & pull factors;

    push factors:

    1.
    marriages: foremost cause of intra-regional migration;
    such as rural to rural, within same city etc.

    2.
    lack of basic infrastructure: such as health care &
    education facilities.

    3.
    high population pressure on land: causes migration of
    people engaged in agriculture from villages to towns/cities.

    4.
    natural disasters & local conflicts: Tsunamis &
    floods destroy property & livelihood of people; communal & ethnic
    violence creates exodus of people from affected region; seen in ethnic violence
    in Kokrajhar.

    pull factors:

    1.
    better opportunities: in term of jobs (higher wages),
    health care & education etc; fuels rural to urban migration.

    2.
    anonymity & acceptance: often people migrate to nearby
    cities/towns to escape parochialism of rural societies.

    spatial pattern:

    States such as Bihar, UP which are less developed experience more
    intra-regional migration; while developed states such as Maharashtra, Gujarat
    face more of inter-regional migration.

    implications on regional development:

    pros:

    1.
    ensures availability of cheap labour pool for
    industries/services in nearby cities/towns;

    2.
    remittances send back home by migrants boosts local
    economy.

    3.
    improves efficiency; as people are engaged in higher
    value jobs.

    cons:

    1.
    burdens infrastructure in cities; growth of slums.

    2.
    increased competition for jobs lead to unrest & violence;
    seen in Mumbai

    3.
    social stress in village/town of migrants; especially
    among women who are left behind to take care of families.