• ThirdEye

    Poverty in India is major ailment and is prevalent in almost all regions of the country. This cannot be the reason for fall in sex ratio given the increase in son preferences, age old beliefs are more observed in the middle and upper classes of society.

    Female foeticide and sex determination practices are followed by the middle classes and is observed in many cases is evident of the poverty not being the reason. Further non affordability of such practices and their costs by poverty striken population is also a reason.

    Many educated people still are preferring sons due to their religious beliefs and treating girl child as a burden. For people around poverty line there may be no difference in terms of economic status, education and other privileges specific to girl children because they are already deprived of those and even boys cannot have in their case.

    Prevalence of practice of dowry is in Upper and middle classes and is one of the major reason for gender discrimination. This practice does not hold significance in case of people in poverty but works good in pushing middle classes to poverty.

    Change in attitudes and beliefs, promoting equity, elimination of ill practices is the need especially in upper strata of society is the need that can bring the true definition of ‘Equality’ and to some extent eliminating poverty also.

    • Priyank Mishra

      gud answer

  • Subramaniyan

    Robust empirical evidences clearly shows that India’s falling sex ratio is a grave concern for sustaining a demographic profile in the long run . Rather than ascribing this fall entirely by romanticizing the poverty situation , one has to carefully analyse this situation on the basis of different regions.

    In case of North Indian states like Punjab and Haryana
    , the falling sex ratio is due to
    a. prevalence of dowry practices has to led to a general perception of considering girl child
    as a burden
    b. In order to consolidate the inherited land and to carry forward the family legacy “parambara”, there is a strong
    proclivity for having a male child. This is highly practiced in middle class and in upper middle class families clearly debunking the argument of poverty being the driving reason for
    falling child sex ratio.
    In complete contrast to this , one can find a well balanced sex ratios in Southern states such as
    Andhra and Tamil Nadu though poverty is still prevalent in many pockets of these states .Also , in case of Northern eastern states like Bihar , it is widely believed that having a male child will provide enough social security to the parents in their old ages. Though this misplaced belief is prevalent in other states too ,it’s enormity in Bihar could be understood by the fact that its decadal growth of population is around 25% .Female literacy is another crucial factor that cannot be easily discounted in these scenarios.This can be substantiated by the fact that the States like Kerala having a very high female literacy rate has a robust sex ratio of around 1032.

    Further ,the role of culture also plays a vital factor for a favourable sex ratios as seen in a few northeastern states like Manipur . Overall ,instead of taking multiple dimensions into account, citing poverty as the only reason for falling sex ratio will entirely divert the focus of policy makers and depicts an intellectual ennui.

  • Please review friends

  • Words: ~245

    Sex ratio is an important parameter that reflects the status of women in society.

    There are many responsible factors behind the declining sex ratio in India such as education, poverty, male dominancy, lack of women empowerment, social status of women and finally thinking of the human being etc.

    The tradition of child marriage is prevailing in many states of India. These girls are far away from the education and they have to compel to take the responsibilities of the household in early age. It adversely affects their health. One survey in 10 states of India in 2010 showed 29% women got married at the young age ranging between 14 to 18 years.

    Female infanticide, abandonment of newborn girls, and neglect of daughters have been used in such societies have increased the male-to-female ratio in families, especially in situations where poverty has limited the number of desired children.

    When the family size norm is moderate and only contraceptive methods are available, couples may consider the sex distribution of their existing children and decide whether or not to use family planning, weighing the need for a son against their desired family size.

    However, when fertility rates are low, by choice or coercion, female births must be prevented to allow for the desired number of sons within the family size norm.

    It clearly indicates that there is no relation between financial situation (poverty or education) of family and sex-ratio. It is the only mindset of people which affects sex-ratio.

    • dev

      u could have also mentioned about faulty regulation on part of government i.e. improper regulation on pndt.

  • Mithrandir

    Answer: Falling sex ratio is modern day vice which haunts society for it’s grave consequences in long term. Various survey by NGOs, National Family Health Survey and NSSO has shown that poor family has balanced sex ratio as compared to rich or upper middle class families. Also it is found that rural area has lesser discrimination toward gender selection as compared to urban counterparts. Reasons for this are clear and mixed.

    (1.) Poor family often not aware of Pre-Conception and Pre-natal Diagnostics test. Hence sex selective abortion are not widely present.

    (2.) Because of low medical facilities available to poor family, they opt for traditional small health care centre and don’t worry for gender for newborn.

    (3.) Poor people often are religious and have stigma toward such abortion. Many a times they engage with fake baba’s or quacks for predicting child sex which comes out as wrong, hence they stopped worrying for sex selection.

    (4.) Because of unavailability of much option for job, money and no dowry. Prevalent local marriage. Hence poor people doesn’t discrimate between boy and girl.

    (5.) Simple life, agricultural and traditional work doesn’t differentiate between boy and girl. Girls are often dropped out of school to help in household chorus. Hence sometimes preferred in joint families.But with increasing access of sonography and ultrasound in rural areas. Also, poor people migrating to urban areas. They are also getting motivated toward sex specific abortion. Government must take strict stance on Pre Natal Diagnostics Test Act implementation.

    • singhr

      can give some suggestion in one or two line for conclusion.
      though very nice answer.
      plz review mine

    • Vijay

      good points ,final conclusion needed

    • Sumant K.

      Nice answer.

      point 3, second sentence. 😀
      Kuch naya jaanne ko mila 😀

    • Aisha

      I want to add some point –
      with economic advancement and high living standard people
      want to have lesser no of children and sometimes they go for male child preferences. This is evident in China despite of economic advanced country sex ratio is lower than India because of one child norm people go for selective child bearing.

      • Rohit

        can u please elaborate?

    • ThirdEye

      good ans..

  • singhr

    india has sex ratio of 927 females per 1000 male. The reasons
    for lower sex ration is illiteracy, lagging reproductive health services and
    social causes such as religious discriptions ,lower status of women etc.

    Many times poverty
    also has been considered as causal factor for discouraging scenario for girl
    child. Rural poor people in villages
    work as agricultural labourer hence for
    them son is an asset because of
    their productive use in manual works . for poor urban people living in slums etc are also prefer male
    children because of their utility in supporting the parental jobs.

    Girls are considers as a liability because of dowry associated with their marriages. Since
    poor people can not afford the burden of
    dowry so several time they adopt female feticides
    and sex selection test on pregnant mothers.

    Due to poverty many people remain illiterate hence more
    influenced by orthodox explanations of religious heads for procreating
    more and more male children.

    Poor people could not get access of institutional delivery
    because of illiteracy, social stigma, social exclusion and unaffordability hence go for domestic
    delivery and hence caused for high mortality rate . Hence they want to produce
    more and more male child so that they
    can save a successor for his family.

    Though many times
    poverty is a causal root but by
    providing reproductive education, access
    of education to all , and increase public
    health services access, and awareness about several govt schemes eg JSSK,JSY
    etc can help them to get healthy
    reproductive life and improved sex ratio for the country

    • auanoraj

      bro you deviated from the question as you explained falling sex ratio on poverty nt in vice-versa

  • Anit ifs

    Had poverty been the reason for the falling sex ratio, then it wouldn’t have been the lowest in the richest states. Punjab and Haryana can boast of one of the higest per capita income in the country and yet the sex ratio is continually dropping there.

    Instead, what seems to be the major factor in the determining sex ratio is the education level of the population. More importantly, the level of education that is being given to girl is an indicative of the acceptacne of the girl child by the society. Since it is mostly a social construct, the gender sensitisation is linked more to the cultural aspects rather than economic.

    Insipite of education and economic well being, the capital Chandigarh too has a horrific record in killing of girl child. Money and education have thus become a tool to attain their parochial aims. It seems that untill the mentality of the people is changed, education would continue to perpetuate the same stereotypes as the ones popular with the poorer citizens of the nation.

    The root of the problem perhaps lies in the economic and political inequity systematically perpetuated by our society. Women have to have the right ot work as equal of their male co workers and paid equally too. Rural settings doesn’t discriminate between the labroures but the modern industry prefers the male worker, seen as more responsible towards the company than the family. Strict laws need to be in place to ensure that maternity leaves, childcare etc. doens’t come in way of a woman’s career.

    • Joseph Stalin

      Man !! you nailed it By breaking the ice Itself !!

    • Shivani9

      excellent explanation in 1st paragraph…overall gud answer..keep writing

  • rishabh pawan

    Sex ratio is defined as the number of women
    per 1000 men in society. It is generally believed that the declined sex ratio
    is related to poverty, as most declined sex ratio appears to be in less
    developed countries.

    In India Kerala is the state, where sex
    ratio is the highest. Haryana is the state where sex ratio is the worst
    (lowest). Kerala’s per capita income is less than the economically-developed
    states of Haryana and Punjab, where per capita income is the highest in the
    country. Bihar is one of the state where per capita income is least and sex
    ratio is higher than the state of Punjab and Haryana. So certainly poverty is
    clearly not a reason for falling sex ratio.

    Falling sex ratio is highest in
    economically developed states, where families have adopted family planning
    seriously. But their social norms still have preference to son over daughter. They
    also have the access to nearby hospitals to determine pre-natal sex, because of
    their money power.

    Demand for dowry is also very high in
    economically developed states, which forces family to have preference for sons.

    Poverty is certainly not the reason of
    falling sex ratio, as India is coming out of poverty. It is high time to stop
    this falling ratio. Social awareness is key to arrest this fall. Beti bachao,
    beti padhao is the right step in this regard.

  • kirtesh

    भारत में कम लिंगानुपात होने के लिए रूढ़िवादी विचार, पुरुष प्रधान समाज, कुप्रथाएँ जैसे- दहेज़ प्रथा, अशिक्षा मुख्य कारण हैं। गरीबी लिंगानुपात के कम होने का कारण नही है क्योंकि-
    – लिंग परीक्षण, गर्भपात, भ्रूण हत्या की गरीब तबकों तक पहुँच नही है क्योंकि ये खर्चीले भी हैं।
    – कई बार गरीब वर्ग के लोग रूढ़िवादी विचारधारा के होने के कारण लड़के की चाह में न चाहते हुए भी कई लडकियां पैदा कर लेते हैं जिससे कि लिंगानुपात संतुलित ही होता है।
    – सरकार द्वारा लड़कियों के जन्म पर दी जाने वाली आर्थिक सहायता और लाभ की योजनाओं के लिए भी गरीब लोग लड़की के जन्म से परहेज नही करते हैं साथ ही कम उम्र में ही लड़कियो को रोजगार कार्यों (जैसे- घरों में साफ़ सफाई) में लगाने से उनकी आर्थिक स्थिति ही सुधरती है।
    अतः इन कारणों से यह सिद्ध हो जाता है कि गरीब वर्ग के लोग अनजाने में जनसंख्या वृद्धि के लिए जिम्मेदार हो सकतें हैं लेकिन सीधे तौर पर भारत में लिंगानुपात के कम होने का कारण नही है।
    लेकिन गरीब वर्ग के लोगों को चाहिए कि लिंगानुपात संतुलित करने के साथ साथ वे अपनी बेटियों की उचित और अनिवार्य शिक्षा पर भी ध्यान दे तथा सरकार द्वारा चलाई जा रही बेटी बचाओ, बेटी पढ़ाओ जैसी योजनाओं का पूरा उपयोग करें और उनके उज्ज्वल भविष्य के लिए प्रयास करें।

    • Diwakar

      good answer ..kirtesh

      • kirtesh


    • Aslam

      exact and to the point.

    • ankush

      you have righty explained what was asked rather than stats or other unnecessary knownedge

    • naren

      good answer in very concise way

    • Rohit

      excellent answer..

    • Saiku

      Standing ovation. I copied your answer not bothering about translation.

    • Roshan Tiwari

      आश्चर्यजनक जवाब सलाम hats off kirtesh

      Cpoy pasted to my notes.

    • Rock star

      Hindi medium me super answer kon khta h hindi medium me chamta ka aabhav hh

  • Rockstar

    of the families in India, irrespective of their caste or religion are patrilineal. Major decisions regarding the future of female of the house and others in the family are taken by the men in the family.

    Social order of our society gives preference to male child. He is considered the savior, the torch bearer and legacy continuer for a family. Financial dependence of women over men has resulted in preference of male child.

    Gender- determination techniques have been highly misused even after it’s banning in India. Rise in female foeticide has drastically reduced sex- ratio. Dowry is one the factors which has increased this crime. Female child are often
    abandoned by parents which lead to the child’s death.

    Women and young girls work for long and tedious hours in the house without paying attention to their own health. Men or boys of the house are seen given larger share and notorious food but females of the house are neglected. Food
    discrimination is not only the function of poverty but perceptions and expectations.

    Child marriage, poor health of women as compared to men, girl child trafficking, lower level of education particularly in females, crime against girl child are many
    of the important factors affecting the sex ratio in the country.

  • Puja

    Some recent surveys reveal the interesting fact about sex
    ratio that is better in poor rural India than the rich urban cities. It put a
    question mark on the preconceived misconception about poverty treated as the
    root cause of the ebbing sex while the main reason lies somewhere else deep
    rooted in our antediluvian societal norms.

    In this 21st century, when the world’s 3rd
    largest rising economic power, India is trying its best to be at par with its
    global counterparts in every aspect, the moral fabric of society is still
    sticking to such norms and cultures that value males over female and this
    admiration for son results in neglecting girl babies. We live in a society
    where boys are treated ad “Asset” and girls as “Liability” i.e. “Paraya Dhan”.
    According to recent studies, in urban society most of the sex selected abortion
    cases come from most richy, educated, upper strata of the society. Also some
    richy states show adverse sex ratio. All these trends prove that son preference
    is not because of financial weakness, but as a result of biased mindset towards
    gender equality.

    Though the nature favours the girl children (0-6 yrs) to be
    relatively more resistant to early childhood diseases and they outlive more
    than boys, we are unable to encash it in terms of improved sex ratio because of
    mere social values that accept male child over female. Government has initiated
    many awareness programmes like “Beti Bachao Beti Parao Abhiyan” to deal with
    the grave situation, but it can only be successful if we people of the society
    also actively participate and cooperate with it to change the society’s mindset
    towards girl child.

    • Vijay

      1.More conclusive points needed.
      2.As for as I understand ,the objectivity of answer should start immediately .Every line should be in such sync with ans in such a way that it hits the demand of question.

      • puja

        Thanks for reviewing.

    • manvendra singh

      anwer is necely written but administrative coherance is needed more

      • puja

        Thanks for reviewing. I am a beginner.

    • Sherrif

      para 2 is unwanted

    • naren

      well try . keep writing

  • Vijay

    Indian demography is witnessing fall in sex ratio during last 50 years minus few exception. Traditional reason could due to lack economic progress more a families have preferences of male child over girl child .However if we see the regional variation of sex ration reason is quite contradictory.
    Economically progressive states like Maharastra,Punjab,Delhi having high per capita income have more skewed sex ration like economically backward states like Bihar,Odisha etc.
    Possible reasons could be:

    1.Rich people may want less children .Going by traditional mindset ,they prefer male child over girl child.
    2.Reach people have access to costly medical techniques of Ultrasound,Sonography and sex selection,Medical Termination of pregnancy etc ,while poor people can not afford the same.
    3.Reach people are more educated and know such medical techniques while poor ones being mostly uneducated and are not aware of such things.
    4.Poor families traditionally dependent on agriculture and related activities want more working hands .This process eliminates any sex selection.
    4.Some regions like Mehgalaya,Mizoram etc have good social system of high status of women and do not reort to preferential treatment,although they are economically poor.

    Clearly,from above reasoning of regional distribution of sex ratio in India ,it is not the poverty that is driving facor for skewed sex ration.

    • Puja

      good points. pls review mine

  • rohan yadav

    211 words

    sex ratio connotates number of females per 1000 males in a given area at a given time. It is one of the most important indicator of demography.
    There are many reason for the constantly declining sex ratio like –
    a)preference for girl child,
    b)neglect of girl child resulting in higher mortality at younger age,
    c)female infanticide,
    d)female foeticide,
    e)high maternal mortality
    d) male bias in enumeration of population.
    e)Easy availability of sex determination tests & abortion services.- The prosperous classes misuse these techniques for selective child bearing.
    further socio cultural factors such as –
    a)girls considered as burden in indian society due to age old patriarchal values whereas boys an asset for additional income.
    b)Early marriage of girls leads to early pregnancy, poor health, frequent childbearing & somewhere in between chances of early death.
    c)low levels of female literacy also a factor- education enables people to inculcate rational & scientific views rising over narrow discriminatory beliefs.
    d)Most of women do not have right or control over their body & sexual decisions.
    e)Religion sanction women subordinate to men .

    Again the irony is that the well prosperous classes, societies & states have the most skewed sex ratio.hence it can be well concluded poverty is clearly not a reson for falling sex ratio.

    • Puja


    • auanoraj

      nice bro:)

    • Sherrif

      question is to analyse the declining child sex ration from one aspect i.e Poverty . You have jotted down the general reasons for the declining child sex ratio.

    • naren

      in general way it is most appropriate answer, but it is diverted from the ques aspect .

  • rohan yadav

    guys plz review……


    Sex ratio in India implies no of females per thousand males and the census 2011 puts it at 940. Poverty has generally been blamed for most of the evils but it’s clearly not a reason of this unfavorable sex ratio.

    The states with highest per capita income are actually the ones where sex ratio is least. Case of Haryana, Punjab and Gujrat clearly shows this when compared to Bihar , Orissa and Jharkhand.

    Declining sex ratio is clearly a result of biased attitude against female child.Female infanticide is practiced in many homes. Although sex selection tests , have been banned which makes them costlier if at all available, has become unaffordable for the poor.

    Again the cause behind this attitude is deep rooted in our cultural practices particularly hindu societies wherein only male child is allowed to complete last rituals. Such rituals are again not affordable to poor. Also the demand of dowry is a major factor against female child. Clearly dowry system is prevalent among middle classes only thus saving poor from this headache.

    Infact poor families need working hands and it is immaterial whether it is male or female hands. The tribal societies are testimony to this fact where the sex ratio is much better.

    Recent govt initiatives like Beti Bachao & Beti Padhao Yojana and other women empowerment schemes will definitely help in improving this ratio. Well to do citizens of this nation should learn from the poors who clearly don’t see female child as a liability. Society must understand that the culture of preferring male child over female isn’t in its favour and collective efforts are required to have a better scenario.

  • Alexis Sanchez

    Given the nature of Indian society and its historical inclination towards patriarchy , poverty possibly becomes one of the reasons for falling sex ratio.
    decline in sex ratio can be attributed to various reasons which have evolved out of complex social institutional structures.
    female in india is always seen as a someone who is inferior to man since the very birth, this is mainly because there exists favouritism towards son and a female as a burden, this is more pronounced in case of the poor since dowry is an issue.
    however if poverty was clearly the main indicator, then economically well off states such as punjab should have better sex ratios which is not the case.
    also after marriage pressure from the husbands family instills a sense of fear in the females for a boy child leading to female infanticide.
    Now since there is shift in family structure from joint to nuclear, sex selective abortions which only economically well off people can afford is a common phenomenon.
    Also in poor families number of trials for a boy child are many due to lack of affordability towards modern equipment, has more chance to add females, which is testimony to the fact that higher female fertility rates in rural india.
    It is indeed an assertive move by govt. of india to promote schemes such as beti padao, beti bachao , sukanya samadri yojana and similar women empowerment schemes , it is of utmost importance to promote awareness campaigns and provide legislative cushion in the highest order of democratic institutions such as reservations in parliament which could uphold and strengthen women integrity.

    • Luis Suarez

      Nice, but coherence needed between the point 😀

  • junker

    Please Review.

    Sex ratio is an important demographic parameter that is an indicator of status of women in the society. reasons for low sex ratios:

    – patriarchial socities placing more premium on male children leads to falling sex ratios – female infanticide, female children not cared for – high under 5 mortality for women

    – low status of women in society – not empowered enough to take their own decisions.

    – the poor see both son and daughters extra hands to contribute towards livelihood – also have less traditions of dowry, donot have access to medical procedures for sex determination and neither extra resources for doing so

    – poor societies are more egalitarian – esp the tribals and as such donot discriminate between male and female children

    – In India, states like Haryana, Punjab have very adverse child sex ratios as against the much poorer states of Orissa and North east – claearly shows that poverty not related to sex ratio

    – similarly at the international level too – rich states like Kuwait, Saudi have amongst the most adverse sex ratios in the world whereas the much poorer african nations owning to their tribals traditions are much better placed.

    Thus poverty not linked to sex ratio but can be a hindrance in trying to improve as it restricts access to education, health, and improvement in status of women which are important tools reqd to tackle this malaise.

  • White Tiger

    Accor to Planning commission data on poverty, BPL percentage is ever decreasing since last decade, from 37% in 2004 to 21% in 2013. But on the other hand child sex ratio lying between 0 to 6 year age is declining and is 914 in 2011 census from 927 of last census.
    Therefore, the other reason not directly connected to poverty are:-
    1. Patriarchal societies and women status in societies
    2. Illiteracy
    3. Escape of illegal gender detection institution from law and punishment.
    4. Less say of women in decision making
    5. Preference for male child and female foeticide, which is clearly directed by family and individual preferences rather than financial position.

    e.g. Haryana and Punjab have worst sex ratio but are not poor states.

    Hence, there lies minimal connection of gender discrimination with poverty.

  • Saiku

    The under-6 child sex ratio is 914 females for every 1,000 males. This ratio is much worse in high prosperous states like Punjab, Haryana indicating that poverty is not a culprit for this social crime.

    Heinous social practice has to do more with cultural taboos and social beliefs. Some of the reasons are son-preference, low value of girl child, branding girl as financial liability, neglect of girl child resulting in high mortality, and female foeticide. Boys are considered as bread winners, dynasty successors, care takers in the wee hours of life. These beliefs pervade cutting across all religious, caste, regional, class lines.

    Rich communities have an access to modern diagnostic facilities. With more education and awareness, they want to have smaller families with boy as mandatory asset. This new norm is resulting in misuse of PCPNDT and MPT acts. Poor families cant afford high medical expenses.

    So poverty is not a factor for falling child sex ratio. Government has taken initiatives like Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao campaign, highlighting achievements of young girls. Imbalance in sex ratio will result further decline in status of women, increase in violence against women, practice of polyandry.

  • mak19

    would love to hear from you all friends

    • mak19

      this is my ans…sorry for handwriting,its cool in delhi. plz review

  • Bhanu Saurabh

    Poverty is defined as a state where a person is unable to possess certain amount of material or monetary assets, which are essential to sustain a healthy life. It is an outcome of the socioeconomic and political situation of the society. On the other hand falling sex ratio is the outcome of mindset of people, where people have a general desire to have male child and in the quest they even go up to feticide of the girl child. This desire is the result of stigmas like dowry and discrimination against women in the society that makes girls burden to their families.
    It’s interesting to see that the most prosperous part of the country i.e. North West has the least sex ratio (Haryana at lowest with 879 female in every 1000 men). On the contrary some of the poorest states like Chhattisgarh (991 females per 1000 men) and Manipur (992 females per 1000 men) are having better sex ratio than the national average.
    Although Government is taking several steps from criminalizing sex determination of fetus, Beti Bachao Beti Padhao, Dowry Prohibition Act, etc. Even the local authorities have come up with unique ideas like electronic trackers installed on Ultrasonic machine in Jind and Jhajjar districts of Haryana, which were fruitful. But it’s the mindset of the people that needs to changes so that these steps bear holistic result.

  • Akshay

    1. Pre-natal diagnostic tests
    2. Patriarchal mindset of society
    3. Social evils like dowry, sati, treating women only as child bearers
    4. Poor state of Public health resulting in IMR, Child mortality rates, Maternal mortality rate

  • Karthi Aero

    If poverty is not a reason for falling sex ratio then what does the scheme Sukanya Samridhi Yojana imply?

  • Chhavi

    Sex ratio is an important indicator of gender balance in population; In
    India declining sex ratio has been a cause of concern among policy makers; however
    falling sex ratio in India cannot be co-related with poverty; because:

    poorest sex ratio’s have been observed in economically
    prosperous regions; States with high per capita income such as Maharashtra,
    Punjab & Haryana but still have low sex ratio’s; on the other hand states
    such as Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Odisha inspite of low per capita income (poverty)
    exhibit a sex ratio higher than national average.

    poor families cannot afford modern diagnostic/medical
    techniques through which sex of baby can be determined; while the rich can effectively
    utilize their economic power to bypass legal hurdles to do so; eventually such
    families opt for female feticide.

    moreover various social schemes such as Beti Bachao
    Beti Padhao ensure economic help to poor/needy families specifically for girl
    child; such governmental support encourages poor families to have some sort of
    preference towards girl child.

    The only way to tackle falling sex ratio revolves around attacking the
    patriarchal mindset of society through social awareness campaigns.