1) “After the World War 2, the strategy of the West towards Soviet block crystallised as a ‘Policy of Containment”. Critically analyse.

Topic: political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.- their forms and effect on the society

1) “After the World War 2, the strategy of the West towards Soviet block crystallised as a ‘Policy of Containment”. Critically analyse. (200 Words)

http://www.epw.in/editorials/significant-steps.html

  • BruceWayne

    The end of world war 2 while meaning the victory of the Allies, also marked the start of cold war between USA and erstwhile USSR based on ideologies-capitalist and communist respectively. Many countries of the world on the basis of their political set up allied themselves to each block. East and West Germany, taken by USSR and USA respectively as spoils of war were both governed according to the respective ideologies of the parent country. Both countries carried out proxy wars in erstwhile colonies like Korea, Vietnam to propagate their own ideology. In this juncture, the USA in an effort to rebuild war torn Europe offered aid in the form of Marshall plan to those countries allied to it. The idea behind offering aid was to contain the spread of communism in Europe where Socialist influence was spreading fast especially in Eastern Europe and socialist coups were carried out in Greece and Romania. Thus the west in the form of economic aid and arms and formation of NATO tried to contain the soviet influence. (174 words)
    Please Review

  • aryan singh

    With the development and possession of thousands of nuclear devices and credible delivery system,an overt and all out war became an impracticable recourcse to gain influence.What followed was a series of geo strategic maneouvres and covert operations,both economically and geopolitically,to undermine the opposite interests.

    The western strategy to contain the Soviet centred on cementing the western influence on its own periphery and encircle and undermine the soviet zones of influence and continguity.
    North America and western Europe were embraced in a tight hug by US power.Eastern europe,which was under Soviet influence was kept in a check .US made anti communist alliances in Asia Pacific,for eg with Japan,South Korea,Australia etc.

    Many covert wars and indirect aid were given to undermine soviet interests.Aiding anti soviet forces in Afghanistan,encouraging defectors from communist system like rebels in Bulgaria,and backing pro western dictatorships in West Asia,all were aimed at denying allies and geo-strategic support to communist state.

    Efforts were made to take advantage of Soviet-China split,and fighting other proxy battles like Containing pro Soviet India through Pakistan,bllockading socialist Cuba,and going for regime change in all latin socialist governments,alongwith other pro soviet nations like North korea,Vietnam etc constituted crucial pivots in Western efforts at containing the Soviet Union.

  • ThirdEye

    The strong deterrrence that Russians offerred to the Nazi army in World War 2(WW2), showed the strength of Russians and their ideology of communism has created a sense of apprehension in the West. It is during the WW2 and in war with Japan the interests of both West and Russia were revealed and the USA’s bombings on Hiroshima and Nagasaki highlight the policy of West to contain Russia in the east.

    Post WW2, the emergence of satellite states, dominance of Soviet block,expansion of communism etc led to West reorganizing themselves to abate it.

    1. Formation of NATO in 1949 is a clear sign to stop any attack by Soviets.

    2. Division of Germany between the west and USSR.

    2. US Support to the dictatorship in China against Maoists who are inclined towards communism.

    3. Division of Korea into North and South Korea.

    4. US war to fight against Ho Chi Minh regime of North Vietnam.

    Every move from fighting for technology to terrain has only significance of West working to contain USSR and expansion of communism. The Cold War of around half a century with the same policy of containment led to the fight between superpowers in foreign territories, destruction during wars, mutual suspicion, and brought the world to the brink of nuclear war during cuban missile crisis. Fortunately with the emergence of few leaders like Khrushchev, Nixon, Gorbachev etc at crucial times the Cold waves lost the strength to destroy the world.

    • SAM

      nice one

  • Words: ~254

    Policy of Containment was a United States policy to prevent the spread of communism abroad.

    After reaching an agreement at Yalta, USSR, established governments which owe allegiance to Russian in Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia. The USA countered these moves by Truman Doctrine, and Marshall Plan.

    Congress helped Truman with $400 million for aid to Greece and Turkey. With this aid, both Greece and Turkey successfully resisted Communism.

    Tensions that produced the Cold War were the result of a set of misconceptions on both sides. USA, had persuaded by wartime government propaganda to admire the Russians as stalwarts anti-fascists, were naively disillusioned when they discovered that their erstwhile allies were in face not democrats. They feared Russians were hatching on weakness of Western Europe. However, scholars were convinced that soviets were not willing to undertake any such campaign, primarily because they were economically and military incapable of doing so.

    President Truman’s by his “Containment Speech,” he influenced the American government to break free from Isolationism and stop the threat of spreading communism in Europe.
    Korean War of 1952 and H-bomb fear made both US and USSR forming political and strategic pacts, viz NATO, SEATO and Warsaw Pact. Cold War in 1952-62s reached its peak resulting Cuban missile crisis.

    Even though there was no physical fighting between America and Russia there was always a fear of either Russia or America shall launch their nuclear war heads on each other.

    Thus, the policy of Containment influenced the Cold War in a negative way by increasing the tensions primarily between the US and Russia.

    • Amarjyoti Sarkar

      you have included some good points….however you could have included Russia being a nuclear state in 1949 as the first step of containment…also you can include Reagan’s policy of containment which led to second cold war….also us’s fear of Russian sphere of influence expanding led to creation of rival military alliances…

    • harry

      the vietnam war and afganistan war could also be included.
      also considering the communist china as the permanent member in 1971.
      btw, the other points you included are upto the mark.

    • Amarish

      nice points…
      you can also add
      1.russian-afghanistan war,
      2.N.korea -S.korea war
      3.N. Vietnam-S. Vietnam war..

    • rita

      good composite answer

  • Barack Hussein Obama II

    The Policy of containment first found purpose in the Truman Doctrine of 1947 which warned about the evils of communism.
    This policy basically states that the US will try to ward of the spread of communism by creating strategic alliances with nation states.

    The limited success of this policy:
    1. The Marshall plan, NATO, all were aimed at the isolation of communism within USSR.
    2. And it did work to stop the spread esp. in western europe.

    The failure of this policy:
    1. But this policy was a big failure in preventing most states. China, Latin america, India are notable examples.
    2. This also created an inverse effect in spreading communism. Like the US isolationist policy towards Cuba, which climaxed in the Bay of pigs invasion, in fact led to Cuba being portrayed as a beacon against anti US imperialism.
    3. The support of mujaheddin in Afganistan is seeing its effects now as it gave birth to a whole generation of terrorists.

    Thus, this policy of containment was not a success as it was imagines. Newly independent countries of Asia and Latin america found solace in communism as they associated american capitalism with imperialism, along with being enchanted with the quick industrialization and perceived success of USSR.

  • Roshan Tiwari

    Please review Guys:
    —————————-
    The containment of communism remained the objective of foreign policy of west for most of the period after second world war.Here West refers to US because Europe was weak and dealing with homegrown issues after the crisis happened in second world war.

    US policy in Latin America,continued more or less as before and the US either sent her troops or actively aided rebels to overthrow regimes in many Latin American countries which she suspected of being leftist and therefore, anti-American.US was directly involved in the war of Vietnam, the fiasco of Bay of Pigs took place and the confrontation on Soviet missiles in Cuba occurred.
    The war of Vietnam ended in the ignominious defeat of US and Cuban missile crises forced US to withdraw its missiles from Turkey.
    Cambodia was bombed and pro-US military government was established and US also extended war to Laos.
    The US support to many unpopular regimes sometimes created problems for the US and led to the acts which were illegal under US law.Like the regimes of Ferdinand Marcos in Philippines and Papa Doc In Haiti which were so unpopular that US had to help rebels to overthrow these dictators.
    In case of Iran also US had to face the defeat when Iran held many Americans as hostages and the commando operation ended in disaster, then US had to unfreeze the assets of Iran.

    Similarly the war in Iraq had serious consequences for the people of Iraq and the condition of Iraq is still in jeopardy.
    The US policy of containment had serious flaws and mostly it culminated in alienation of many countries which could have been the partner of US in Economic,political and social sphere.More or less this ideology has failed to achieve its any desired objective.

    • deevuda

      great points mate but you could have organized better, it doesn’t have a nice flow to read .. 🙂

      • Roshan Tiwari

        Thanks Deevuda for review..will try to improve

  • Chandler

    Post World War II, USA feared the rise of communism in eastern european states under the aegis of Soviet Union. This made the United States follow a ‘strategy of containment’ towards the Soviet Union, which was evident in ‘Truman Doctrine’ and ‘Marshall Plan’.

    Truman Doctrine was primarily aimed at giving financial assistance to economically tattered greece so that it doesn’t follow communism for the path of development. However, the motto behind the doctrine is contain the rise of Soviet allegiance and communism wherever possible and most importantly in the bordering countries of Soviet Union. This containment policy was further strengthened by formation of NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organisation), a military block which deems all the signatories as allies and defends them. Under NATO, a threat to any of the signatories is deemed as a common threat to all the signatories, which can evoke a military response from NATO forces. USA is successful in its endeavour as it succeeded in isolating Russia from its neighbour states. Post USSR disintegration, all the bordering nations of eastern europe which were once part of USSR, one by one joined the western organisations NATO, EU etc.

    Though the ‘policy of containment’ is aimed at containing rise of communism around Russia, today it has taken a new form in isolating russia from its neighbours.

    Review appreciated (:

    • dev

      nice answer but u could even add much more cases for instance crimean war..us alongwith nato imposing restrictions on russia..

    • deevuda

      I loved it 🙂

  • Priyank Mishra

    Post WW II- US Policy of containment of communism

    1) Trumen Doctrine/Marshell Plan :Provide financial help to nations to check spread of communism. So US invested heavily in Western Europe, Japan. Turkey, Greece was helped motivated by same plan.

    2) Formation of NATO to counter USSR militarily.

    3) Even some historian argues that Nuclear bombing of Japan by US was a part of this strategy to deter USSR.

    4) US was representative of liberal Democracy , however it never shied away from supporting dictators who toed to US line.

    5) Reckless foreign interventions : Like Vietnam, Angola , Korea, China etc. ::: Objective was only to contain communism.
    6) US Tried to compete with USSR in every field nd looked for their superiority :: Like Sputnik saga (1957), USSR devp. of nuclear bomb nd consequently devp. of conspiracy theories which led to eventual execution of top US Nuclear scientists on they charges that they supplied the technology to USSR.

    Critical Analysis :: US also look suspiciously toward USSR and communism Even when USSR looked for reconciliation like in late 1950s through Nikita Khruschev, US stand couldn’t changed. Cuban Missile crisis was a very serious event which could have led to WW-III and it was smart diplomacy by USSR that it could be prevented. NATO were the first who tried to encircle USSR nd promoted antagonism in the region which was later contended by USSR and led to enhance hostilities and rivalaries.

    • Amarjyoti Sarkar

      good answer….could have included shock therapy in eastern europe and Regan’s policy of containment which led to second cold war….

      • Manish

        I believe you meant Reagen’s rollback policy not containment policy.

    • kid monkey

      hey hero. the answer is giving some hints that you are anti USA. please make a note. do accordingly. nice.

      usa always attempted not only to contain USSR but also to extend its influence from various fronts.
      1. military front- NATO
      2.marshal plant- to contain ussr from europe politics.
      3. brettenwood twins- financial influence. other developing nations.
      4.expression of aggression at various places of globe- cuba, vietnam, korea….
      5.dollar diplomacy and dollar as exchange gold standard- to reduce influence of USSR.

      • Priyank Mishra

        nice points kid. I will add them in my answer . Thnx for reviewing 🙂

        • kid monkey

          did u get the meaning of refugee question mr. Mishra?

      • harish

        the epw reference is not open pls tell me how to get the source

        • kid monkey

          ya. it is asking us to subscribe.

          • harish

            kk friend….

      • waytoias

        can anybody provide the article..as are not able to acccess from EPW….thnks..

      • Piyush Singh

        gud suggestion ..

        • kid monkey

          thank you. we share our views here . it is just a part in that. Mr.Priyank Mishra inspired me in many ways.

    • ThirdEye

      Good ans bro..

  • Anit ifs

    In the post world war 2 world, there were effectively only two powers for some time with nuclear weapons. The short peace that lasted immediately after the war was shattered when the differences over the occupation of the Berlin itself was contested. Stalins policy of erecting a wall in the east german area and then supporting communitsts in the entire eastern european region saw the start of the cold war.

    Churchill had warned about the “Iron Curtain” that loomed over the worlds landscape once USSR had started using it’s military might to put desirable regimes in adjacent countries. In Italian elections both these powers collided to determine the boundaries of East and West europe. After that a blatant strategy of undercutting support for the idealogies of the opposite group began on a world wide stage.

    The US strategy was shoring up on allies and cutting off USSR from the rest of the world. Though big in itself, the USSR wasn’t able to survive in the post globalisation world as it couldn’t leverage the competitive advantages of global economies like US did. The efforts of USSR at Cuba, Afghanistan were undercut by CIA and allies like China were lured away after persistent economic troubles hogged them.

    In the end, despite it’s military prowess, the lack of USSRs soft power led to its global isolation in an era of democracy, liberalisation, globalisation.

  • Anurag

    WW II eased the globe from colonialism, but new political ideological war started between US – USSR.US adopted policy which restricts the USSR from spreading its socialists ideology.

    Policy of Containment strategy was : –
    a) Preventing spread Socialism/Communism : – West interfered in Korea and Vietnam for capitalism,fighting war with communists forces.
    b) Economic Embargo : – Putting economic sanctions against Cuba,North Korea,East Germany to isolate the countries from economic development.
    c) Democracy promotion : – Toppling government on the name of democracy and will of people.
    d) World Institution seclusion :- The UN,World Bank, IMF established by the effort and capital of west ,ignored co-opreation and assistance on the guidelines of the west.

    West have been successful at certain areas, whereas failed at other places, but has successfully achieved through its Policy of Containment.

  • Guest

    Post WW2 West policy led by USA had
    been containment of Soviet Union .Due to growing skepticism of Soviet’s
    expansionary policy and difference in political philosophies ,West got very
    vary of Soviet policy. Strategy was to stop nations falling to Communism and
    there by checking Soviet influence and it led to Cold War.The Policy of
    Containment culminated in following dimensions:

    a.
    Concept of Iron
    Curtain: Western
    nations led USA got vary of growing influence of communist USSR and wanted to
    stop nations like Greece ,Iran falling to so called “Iron Curtain” as soon as
    possible. This concept ,coined by Churchill ,further enhanced USA apprehensions
    of expansionary attitude of USSR.

    b.
    German Issue: Germany was divided into two parts
    ,eastern part falling under influence of USSR. Incidents of Berlin Airlifts further heightened
    tensions.

    c.
    NO aid to USSR : Although USSR fought on the sides
    of Allies and suffered heavily ,however no
    aid was provided to it while same was grated to other western European countries.

    d.
    Marshal Plan: According to this plan $ 12.5
    billion aid for reconstruction was to be provided to various western and
    eastern European countries so that they do not fall to communism.

    e.
    Formation of NATO and
    military alliances:
    NATO got formed as a military alliance to check rise of communist USSR. Other
    military alliances like Baghdad Pact, CENTO were formed for the same purpose.

    f.
    Creation of
    military bases around USSR like in Eastern European countries ,Japan,
    South Korea ,Pakistan etc.

    However ,after collapse of USSR the
    policy of containment has in some sense eased .Russia is democratic country and
    weak and it is not much threat to West .Trade and political relations between
    West ,USA and Russian have improved significantly.US relations with communist
    countries like Cuba has been improving rapidly ,with USA announcing to end
    economic blockade in recent times . In countries where communism is still
    present ,it has gone tremendous change and no longer a threat to democratic
    world in 21st century. Although ,some incidents like Ukraine issues
    and Crimean accession by Russia has led
    talks to COLD WAR2 ,however it is not feasible in near future as Russia is weak
    and Western European nations are under economic crisis.USA is more focusing on
    issues in Asia and China and its own economy.

  • Neo

    Post WW2 West policy led by USA had been containment of Soviet Union .Due to growing skepticism of Soviet’s expansionary policy and difference in political philosophies ,West got very vary of Soviet policy. Strategy was to stop nations falling to Communism and
    there by checking Soviet influence and it led to Cold War.The Policy of Containment culminated in following dimensions:

    a. Concept of Iron Curtain:
    Western nations led USA got vary of growing influence of communist USSR and wanted to
    stop nations like Greece ,Iran falling to so called “Iron Curtain” as soon as
    possible. This concept ,coined by Churchill ,further enhanced USA apprehensions
    of expansionary attitude of USSR.

    b. German Issue:
    Germany was divided into two parts ,eastern part falling under influence of USSR. Incidents of Berlin Airlifts further heightened
    tensions.

    c. NO aid to USSR :
    Although USSR fought on the sides of Allies and suffered heavily ,however no
    aid was provided to it while same was grated to other western European countries.

    d. Marshal Plan:
    According to this plan $ 12.5 billion aid for reconstruction was to be provided to various western and eastern European countries so that they do not fall to communism.

    e. Formation of NATO and military alliances:
    NATO got formed as a military alliance to check rise of communist USSR. Other
    military alliances like Baghdad Pact, CENTO were formed for the same purpose.

    f. Creation of military bases around USSR like in Eastern European countries ,Japan,
    South Korea ,Pakistan etc.

    However ,after collapse of USSR thepolicy of containment has in some sense eased .Russia is democratic country and weak and it is not much threat to West .Trade and political relations between West ,USA and Russian have improved significantly.US relations with communist countries like Cuba has been improving rapidly ,with USA announcing to end
    economic blockade in recent times . In countries where communism is still present ,it has gone tremendous change and no longer a threat to democratic world in 21st century. Although ,some incidents like Ukraine issues and Crimean accession by Russia has led
    talks to COLD WAR2 ,however it is not feasible in near future as Russia is weak
    and Western European nations are under economic crisis.USA is more focusing on
    issues in Asia and China and its own economy.

    • RAJ KAMAL VATSA

      It was nice going through yr answer.
      Well structured i must say and compressing your sentences would fit all in 200 words
      I had one question
      You have repeatedly mentioned that Russia is weak…don’t you think it needs justification..

      • Neo

        Thanks. You are right, it needs justification.I will amend the same.

  • Aish

    Containment was the first major policy during the cold war and numerous strategies were used to prevent the spread of communism abroad. It was first suggested by George.F.Kennan who was a diplomat during President Truman’s Reign. The strategies and involvement of US were:
    -> Truman Doctrine – This doctrine came about when Greek and Turkey in 1947 were under threat of Soviet Union and its communism.First the British aided when it no longer had resources the US steped in gave military and economic aid.
    -> Marshall plan 1948 – This plan was formulated as the Europe Recovery Programme to help and aid the western Europe during the harsh winter and also to respond to soviet union’s ‘Salami Tactics’
    -> Point Four Programme was as a foreign aid and was used to win foreign support from uncommitted nations
    -> NATO – It was established as line of defence for Western Europe from communism.
    -> After the rollback of the policy in Vietnam President Jimmy Carter focused less on containment and more on fighting the cold war by promoting human rights in hot spots countries.
    -> The Reagan Doctrine – When the Soviet Union Invaded Afghanistan in 1979 it worried the American policy makers and hence they provided technical and economical assistance to the Afghans guerrillas fighting against Soviet army. This doctrine was also enforced in Africa , Asia and Latin America to diminish Soviet union’s influence.

    Much of the strategies of US have worked out to reduce communism and rise of Russia but its rising a stifling relationship between the two with a predicament thought of where will it end ?

  • kaurmanprit

    Plz review frnds I have tried a balanced approach..

    • kaurmanprit

      Sorry for the bad quality of image 🙁

  • RAJ KAMAL VATSA

    Right after WW-II, UN was formed and USSR was accorded a veto power status in its security council. It surely reflects the might of USSR but thereafter the west led by US, has consistently followed a policy of containment towards Soviet block which was aimed at checking the spread of communism.

    Western block led by US has consistently countered USSR and the same reflected in various of its policies such as nuclear deterrence and continuation of NATO even after collapse of USSR.

    Western powers were always inclined towards weakening of USSR block. They welcomed China when it started leaning towards them after efforts of Kissinger Nixon diplomacy. Korea’s split into North and South is also a testimony of the same.

    Even after the collapse of USSR , Russia has been always been suspected. There are many evidences of spying on Russia. Merger of Crimea into Russia has been termed as annexation. Not even that US frowned upon India’s signing of nuclear reactor supply deal with Russia.

    But there are signs of easing of tensions and US change of diplomatic policy towards Cuba is a good sign. Also Western block has extended Euro membership to some of the erstwhile USSR countries. Nevertheless the possibilities of cold war 2 still remain as was evident during the Ukrainian crisis.

  • Danish Mohammad

    “After the World War 2, the strategy of the West towards Soviet block crystallised as a ‘Policy of Containment”. Critically analyse. (200 Words)

    With the end of the world war by dropping of the atom bombs on the cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 Aug 1945 respectively has marked with the advent of another war “The Cold War”. Basically this was the war between the ideologies of Capitalism and Socialism with USA led West on one side and USSR led east and surprisingly some latin American allies viz. Cuba etc on the other.

    US intentions of dominating the whole Americas and establishing its absolute sovereignty over the region was met with stiff resistance from Latin Americans in general and Cubans in particular led by Fidel Castro. So, US resorted to “Policy Of Containment” against the Socialist followers and imposed an economic embargo in 60’s on Cuba. The intention was to isolate the tiny island nation and break it politically and economically to bring it back in US ambit. Similar, restrictions were placed on the erstwhile USSR as well but the case of Cuba was more serious considering its geopolitical location and size of economy.

    But, during the course of time the US hopes were shattered with the emergence of Cuba as an idealist socialist welfare state with free education, free high quality health care etc. Many regional blocks have been formed since then viz. Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) which have denigrated the hegemonic ambitions of US.

    After 4 decades of the embargo the US has realized (courtesy significant pressure from the Cuban american , Hispanic community and business community) that keeping an embargo on will not serve the need of the hour and changing political and diplomatic scenario round the globe. So, steps have been taken to ease the same. But one thing that US is committed to even today is to contain Russia and keeping a check on China as well with maintaining balance of power in Asia Pivot. Though it has succeeded partially on the second front but tackling Russia is a big challenge that US does not looking ahead onto.

  • saurabh songara

    Post World War 2 USA and USSR emerged as two superpowers while former was capitalist and the latter communist. Both tried to spread their hegemony all over the world. Nations nearby Russia were influenced by communist ideology.

  • pooja

    A component of the Cold War, the policy of Containment was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, Africa, and Vietnam. It represented a middle-ground position between appeasement and rollback.
    The United States implemented the policy of containment in two major ways. One way was military and the other was done via diplomatic and economic means.

    In terms of military operations, the United States implemented the policy of containment in many instances.
    For example, the US used military power to try to end communist insurgencies in Turkey and Greece as well as in Vietnam. The US also used military force in the Korean War and the threat of military force in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
    However, the US also used economics and diplomacy to contain communism.The most outstanding example of this sort of containment was the Marshall Plan. By aiding the countries of Western Europe, the US was helping them economically as well as putting some diplomatic pressure on them to side with the US against the Soviet Union.
    The US also implemented containment using “Collective Security” arrangements, such as the formation of the NATO military alliance in Western Europe, which adopted a philosophy of “An attack on one is an attack on all”. This safeguarded Europe from Soviet expansion
    However the recent steps by the US of improving ties with cuba for reasons of accessing the cuban markets and the counter effect of strenghtening communism in cuba shows the easing of containment policy.

    • siva

      super.

      • pooja

        Thnks 🙂

      • pooja

        Thnks 🙂

    • PMNQ

      Good answer

      • pooja

        Thnk u 🙂

    • poem

      VERY NICE.. FINALLY undrstood the whole matter .. thanks alot

      • pooja

        Thnks fr d review 🙂

    • Piyush Singh

      good one Pooja..

      but need to ask one thing..here Q-“After the World War 2, the strategy of the West towards Soviet block crystallised as a ‘Policy of Containment””

      but after reading ur answer it reflacts like u r writing –USA vs USSR only..
      i belief it wud have been betterif it had some point with respect to Europe also??

      • Guest

        yes..because the policy was started by the USA

      • pooja

        yes..because the policy was formulated by the USA . (An american civil servant George Kennan…)

  • Debula

    How do I get access to this article. It says to subscribe…

    • deevuda

      There is nothing in it for you to worry about 🙂

      • Debula

        deevuda how do I access it….i need to write the answers

  • Sneha Goley

    Please review guys, Thanks 🙂

  • Gajendra Thakur

    The stand off between soviet union and west was surfaced during 1st world war itself.October revolution and then withdrawal of ussr from 1st world war and thereafter interference of west into ussr was the starting point of differences which was visible in the 2nd world war also when west was not opening western front even after continuous urging by ussr.Diferences were crystallized only after 2nd world war which was culminated into cold war.Cold war was infact the manifestation of ideological differences over socialism vs capitalism.

    Western countries were quite suspicious of growing popularity of socialism and tried every way to check its rise.Politically,USA interfered openly in newly independent countries to contain socialist parties.For instance,Vietnam and Korea.Economically,marshall plan was launched to entice nations into its fold.Militarily,missile defence encircling of Ussr was vividly undertaken to follow the strategy of brinkmanship.Nato was fully active during those times.

    Policy of containment can be described as successful because ussr made heavy expenditure in military during those time,much to the negligence of economic and social prosperity of citizens which finally culminated into disintegration of ussr.

    • Gajendra Thakur

      Kindly review friends!!!

    • deevuda

      I guess that middle paragraph would be better as points 🙂

      • Gajendra Thakur

        yes,that is true!!

  • deevuda

    With world war 2 coming to end . allies US , Russia grew in mutual suspicion . America a capitalistic country with its counter part being communist, made it worse . The erratic decisions of leaders from either sides didn’t help the situation much
    either.

    Containment was a United States policy to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, Africa, and Vietnam. It represented a middle-ground position between appeasement and rollback.
    What ever one bloc suggested or did was viewed by other having ulterior and aggressive motives. There was long wrangle , for example , over frontier between Poland and Germany should be, and no permanent settlement could be agreed on for Germany and Austria
    .In mid 1950’s after stalins death realtions talked about “ peace ful existence “ .
    however,relations did not improve enough to allow agreement on Germany , and
    tensions mounted over Vietnam and Cuban missiles crisis .

  • 6047

    the world war 2 was majorly a result of western capitalist countries to appease the autocratic power and malign motives of the capitalist to use these tyrants against the communist russia.
    however the west themselves burnt their fingers and ultimately they had to side with russia to end the war. but the end of the war was just a beginning for further attempt to isolate the USSR (union of soviet socialist republic), for instance-
    1) in yalta conference, 1945; soviet demand for a passage through germany for poland was turned down by USA.
    2)the spirit of potsdam conference was violated by USA, while dealing with JAPAN.

    these efforts of containment, latter continues through marshal plan(dollar imperialism) and suspicious purging of japan and german influence in korea and vietnam. as per geopolitical theories of spikesman and mackinder, the western power tried to imprison USSR in the European heartland by controlling the coastal states such as fineland, egypt, Iran, pakistan, vietanam, korea etc. this policy of western influence on the peripheral states of eurosia is termed as “policy of containment” for communist ideology. USSR also reacted by 1960s missile crisis in cuba.
    this policy continued throughout the cold war era and resulted in USSR disintegration in 1989, however recently the Crimea’s annexation of Russia and NATO’s influence over Ukarian can be seen as continuation of same poilicy by the west.

    thus certainly the western policy regarding USSR crystallized in containment of it and much of the world as we see today good or bad, can be attributed to this

  • Csha Nambiar

    Containment was a Western World’s basically US foreign policy to prevent the spread of communism abroad. A component of the Cold War, this policy was a response to a series of moves by the Soviet Union to enlarge communist influence in Eastern Europe, China, Korea, Africa, and Vietnam. It represented a middle-ground position between appeasement and rollback. The basis of the doctrine was articulated in a 1946 cable by U.S. diplomat George F. Kennan.

    1 Financial Aid : The “Truman Doctrine” of 1947 argued that Greece and Turkey could fall victim to subversion without support from friendly nations and asked Congress to authorize millions in emergency assistance. Later “Marshall Plan” proposed the extension of massive economic assistance to the devastated nations of Europe fearing they would be attracted
    to socialism

    2 Military intimidation : In 1949, the prospect of further Communist expansion prompted the United States and 11 other Western nations to form the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).

    3 Nuclear Deterrence : A 1962 nuclear explosion called the “The Starfish test” by United States under Operation Fishbowl intended to reinforce fear of nuclear bombs dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The goal was to contain Communist expansion without a nuclear war.

    4 Enemy’s enemy is friend : USA publicly supported even those nations that blatantly disrespected the values of democracy and freedom so long as they did not back the communist ideology.

    5 Indirect Wars : Wars fought by the west in Afghanistan, Korea and Vietnam meant to send a message to the USSR to keep from spreading its philosophies

    The aftermath of such policies can be observed in the wrecked state of Afghanistan which continues to bear the brunt of the Cold War. Central programs begun under containment, including NATO and nuclear deterrence, remained in effect even after the end of the cold war. The bipolar world has turned uni polar with power concentrated with USA after the disintegration of USSR. But such policies continue to play havoc with the present and future of vulnerable nations that get caught in the crossfire.

    • Csha Nambiar

      Please Review!

    • Answer should contain different strategies with emphasis on policy of containment. It should explain how different strategies were different form of containment. Since, it is critical analysis, counter points should be there in answer.
      Apart from this, conclusion should be balanced view of different strategies, current status or post cold war situation is secondary here.

      • Csha Nambiar

        Thank you Girl on Fire. Ill try again. I couldn’t find any impressive answers for this question here and so tried my luck! 🙂

  • Akshay

    The end of WW2 was the start of cold war between capitalism and communalism. The world was converted into bipolar world. USA was always suspicious about communist expansion. It adopted the following steps to contain the spread of Soviet communism-

    1. Truman Doctrine- US economic and military support to countries whose security is threatened by communism and USSR. Ex- greece and turkey

    2. Marshal Plan- also called European recovery plan. Its main objective was to provide eco support to european economies heavily affected by WW2. UKFrance and western germany were the largest recipients.

    3. NATO- North atlantic treaty org was a military alliance to check the spread of communalism.

    4.Foreign interventions in Vietnam, Korea, etc. which destoyed these economies.

    5. Encirclement of USSR from all the sides by NATO forces.

    THe US policy of containment was aggressive and intrusive. It affected the entire global order. It created a situation of bipolar world. The world reached the situation where every country predicted that the world was at the edge of another world war. Later USSR deployed missile at Cuba. This significant event was called Cuban missile crisis

  • kamal

    Containment policy was
    initiated to prevent spread of communism in world. There were many reason
    behind this policy- emergence of ussr as challenger of capitalism and usa , war
    ravaged European countries, asian and African nations gaining freedom from
    colonial rulers, technological growth of ussr, china and cuba’s support to ussr.
    Thus there was fine reasons for communism embracement by nations of world. To weaken
    down ussr’s propaganda, usa and uk used containment policy as defensive and
    protective measures in every field of foreign relations.

    In Europe, countries were provided financial
    help to revive back their economies. NATO, a military force, deployed on
    western boundaries of ussr to check its intervention in European nations. Even,
    at some instances there was confrontation.

    Friendly approach towards
    china and isolation policy for cuba. Usa also helped south korea and japan with
    huge investments. NAM was also supported by usa as it wasn’t pro-communism.

    Technological growth in space
    exploration, weaponry etc. provided deterrence.

    Meanwhile, usa successfully
    formed or reshaped united nations, world bank, imf and other important institutions
    according to capitalist ideology.

    On whole, containment policy
    as a one of tactics of cold war induced competition in world which played great
    role in world economy and politics. Some countries successfully gained benefits
    but afghanistan war of 1980, Vietnam and Korean wars and middle east
    interventions by usa are some negatives of world history.

  • Chandrakant

    Please comment friends.

  • The policy of west specially of US after world war 2 was to prevent the spread of communist ideology of Soviet. They can be enumerated as follows–

    Berlin uplift
    ______________
    To counter the challenge posed by economic blockade on some european countries by USSR; America helped the affected countries providing food supply through air.

    Policy of west
    _______________
    After second world war most of the western countries helped weaker countries around Soviet block ( for example ; US helped Turkey) in suppressing any uprising against ruler so that communist ideology cant spread in the countries.

    Iron curtain
    _____________
    The speech of wineston churchill known to ” iron curtain” after world war 2 clearly shows disappointment against Soviet block.

    Truman policy
    _______________
    The American President Truman also took reactionary policy against soviet block. He helped the other countries to be occupied by communist ideas. In respinse to the experimental explosion of atomic bomb by Soviet and fall of china to Maozedong; US experimented hydrogen bomb as a deterrent policy.

    Use of NATO
    ______________
    After second world war NATO was used to aid western countries in military front and thus make them united thus indirectly with a purpose to prevent the spread of communist regime indirectly.

    NSC 68
    ________
    It is a memorandum which asked US to prepare massive military set up to counter the communist force.

    Domino theory
    _________________
    This theory recognized that communist can make any part of the world a communist regime. Then ; US  saw the imminent Vietnam war as a threat because it can make whole south asia a communist regime. Thus US intervened in the Vietnamese war and supported the Catholic leader who was against the changing of older social structure in Vietnam.

    Marshall plan
    ________________
    After world war; US took a policy to rebuild war torn europe. It indirectly helped to prevent communism as they used the economic aid as diplomatic tactic to counter  Soviet.

    Economic integration
    _______________________
    US; France; Britain; Germany united as ally with economic cooperation to counter the strength of soviet block.

    Thus; the strategy of west after second world war was mostly to counter the revolutionary ideology of Soviet block.

  • geniegg

    Although russia and usa fought together in world war II, their conflicting ideologies of capitalism and communism made them opponents and led to a new era of cold war. The rich and capitalist of west were suspicious of communism which intended to nationalise public wealth if it spread across the borders and they implemented policies to contain ussr which is prime advocate of communism.
    It was blamed that US delayed attacking germany in western europe at the end of WW2 to burden russia on eastern front and there by weakening it and also russia was not informed about the nature of atom bomb and dropping this bomb on japan is to show its superiority over ussr.
    Marshall plan which is devised to reconstruct the european countries after WW2 was used to persuading the nations subscribing it to join the capitalist camp and also NATO was formed to contain USSR and also wars in vietnam and south korea were also fought to contain spread of communism.

  • [email protected]@N

    The West led by the US had apprehensions over an ideologically opposite “godless Communism” of the USSR who wanted to repeat the Russian Revolution in the world stage. Hence, the policy of the US was to contain the spread of Communism.
    1. After the war, US launched Marshall Plan to assist and finance the European nations so that they do not become breeding grounds for Communism.
    2. US entered into various staregic alliances like NATO, CSTO and CENTO to offer military security to vulnearbke regions in a mutual assiatnce framwork.
    3. The US President talked about Domino effect of the ideology of Communism and were wary of Russia China who would promote it. US didnot recognise Communist China as a memebr of Security Council and extended arms assiatnce to Koumintang which was cornered to Taiwan. Korean war was necessaryily interfered into to protect a cpaitlaised South Korea from North. US broke diplomayic relations with Cuba which was groeing too close to the Soviet and imoosed economic sanctions over Cuba and its trading partners as well. Germany was sliced up and attempts were made to protect thw West Gemrnay from effects of the East. US intervened into Afghan Soviet wars and assisted the Mujahideens against the Soviet.
    4. US viewed many of its own officials with suspicion, specially after USSR tested a nuclear bomb.
    5. The nin-aligned nations were called as “immoral” as US believed they are vulnerable to be communists given their 3rd world status.
    More importantly, US Foreign Secretay talked about not just containing Communism but rolling it back by using brinkmanship tactics.
    Thus, US policy was based upon the opposition offered to its own ideological existence. Soviets also left no stone unturned to extend their ideology, sometimes by force. In the process, both parties caused heavy casualtoes and inteference in doemsyic affairs of many countries.