3) Examine what historical forces shaped the vision of the Indian Constitution.

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Topic: Indian Constitution- historical underpinnings, evolution

3) Examine what historical forces shaped the vision of the Indian Constitution. (200 Words)

NCERT

  • aimias

    The indian constitutionwas drafted in november 1949, came into force in 1950.many indians and eminent personalities had contributed in its framing and shape the ideals of indian constitution.below are the names of the historical forces given who had given their views to insert the features enshrined in indian constitution.
    1.B.R ambedkar – chairman of drafting committee had enforced the features of social and economic democracy which was the part of directive principal of state policy.
    2.H.J. khandekar – member of constituent assembly had inserted the feature of practice of untouchability and focussed on special privileges for the poorest and most disadvantaged indians
    3.Jawaharlal nehru:-our former PM jawaharlal nehru had incorporated the feature of equality before the law to all citizen.
    4.T.T krishnamachari:he had debated on the issue of hindu and English language to be used whether as official language or it should be used in the courts, schools etc.
    Finaly, a conclusion was derived that ‘hindi’ should be used as official language and english should be used in the schools, courts etc.
    By viewing to our indian constitution we come to know that how this historical forces had shaped the various features of our indian constitution. Due to their immense co-orperation, the basic features had enshrined in our constition.

    • pravi

      You have interpreted question wrongly. Question asked about historical events.

    • Amol Ballal

      @disqus_X5ljPFLWHu:disqus
      Hey question asking about event. You could have used these points but not answer this way. Otherwise structure and flow is nice. Once again read question.

      • aimias

        Thnx amol and pravi for ur feedback:)

  • IWRA

    Years of struggle against colonial oppression inspired with desire to have self governance,the evolving nationalism borne out of common discrimination and global ideas of equality,liberty and justice as shown by french revolution,American revolution,Russian revolution and post world war structural changes in global governance all affected the vision of Indian constitution.

    Nehru while presenting “objective resolution” was very categorical about uniqueness of Indian constitution.Though it drew elements from constitutions of various parts of world,it was not a mere copy paste job.It was Indianized in its outlook and disposition.This process of Indianization was largely result of nature of debates in constituent assembly.Indian struggle for independence was based on ideals of unity,equality,self-governance and partially on ideas of socialism.Leaders like Nehru,Gandhi and Ambedkar were supporter of an equal society.The idea of secularism was shared by many leaders and CAD(constituent assemble debates)officially evolved these basic principles.

    Thus Indian constitution trace its vision from Indian nationalism,as well as global changes that were taking place in contemporary world.It also attributes its unique character to leaders of this country and to the masses in general who shared a selfless devotion for the cause of this nation.

    • pravi

      Good one

      Review mine. critically as far as possible.

    • Radhika

      i think the question meant Indian history not history of other nations

      • IWRA

        I included the historical perspective both from India and World.

  • Akshay

    India is a land of unity in diversity. During the entire history of India, a number of religions, castes, creeds, ethnic groups came to our country from different parts of the world and permanently settled in our country. A number of languages evolved from different regions of the country. While Indian Nationalism has a subjective form. It is derived from common values and beliefs and historical factors. These values, feelings and aspirations have been fairly incorporated in the Indian Constitution. The Partition of country in 1947 was accompanied by communal riots, extensive migration and high level of inequality of income. Consequently the ideas of democracy, secularism, equality become imminent. The state strive towards creating a socialist pattern of society. This will help in reducing inequality of income. Federalism with strong centralizing tendencies is also one of the most important feature of the constitution. While different states were empowered to control subjects like law and order, water, social welfare, irrigation, etc The foreign Policy, defense and communications were made subjects of center.

    • Amol Ballal

      @disqus_hNlBDcHkk0:disqus
      Nice attempt, Intro overstretched and flow lost directly jumped to partition. Even example is right it has stopped you to go any further. You should write what is vision of Indian constitution.
      By the way…..keep writing.

      • Akshay

        thanks amol

  • aimias

    Please review my answer and make the improvement

  • Abhishek V

    following was the historical forces that shaped the vision of independent India:
    Indian National Congress had promised the nation for an Independent Sovereign Republic.
    Hence, to fulfill its promise made before independence, India national Congress, as declared by Nehru, made
    -a resolve to proclaim India as the Independent Sovereign Republic wherein; territories that comprised British India, that now form Indian state and such other parts of India as are outside India and the states as well as other territories as are willing to be constituted into the idependent sovereign India, shall be a union of all of them. Resolve to all said territories shall posses and retain autonomous status.

    -resolve to all power and authority of Sovereign India to be derived from people.

    -Resolve to guarantee and secure to all people of India, justice, social, economic, political;

    -Resolve to safeguard the interest of minorities that were suffering before independent.

    -Resolve to end the long history of inequality between people and guarantee and secure to all the people of India justice, social, economic, political; equality of status of opportunity, and before the law; freedom of thought, expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association and action, subject to law and public morality.

    Please review

    • pravi

      I think you have explained what is their in constitution but here one should Write effects of historical event with example. Thats what I think you can correct me.

      • Abhishek V

        “what is their in constitution” this was ideology that it was based on that is why it is their in constitution. I may have been unable to argue properly how it originates from history but the fact presented is actually right 🙂

        • pravi

          No dought these are facts and you have rightly pointed that it should be explained,how they originate from history.
          That’s what I wanted to say.

          • Abhishek V

            yes yes you are right.

  • Priyank Mishra

    Historical forces which shaped the vision of Indian Constitution :
    1. Influence of british legacy : whether we accept it or not, but system, arch. etc is mostly derived from british. We learned alot from british system.
    2. Influencial ppl of the time, who reached to very high level of understanding based on their experiences like
    Gandhi : His association with poor nd mass, villeges. so such principles find their reflection in constitution.
    Nehru : His tilt to left, his international understanding, NPC
    Other freedom fighters nd their visions.
    3. Best International practices of Fundamental Rights, Polity : In essence source was French, American Rev.
    4. Our freedom struggle inspired constitution makers to make modern india a secular, welfare state.
    5. Ancient nd mediviel historical legacy : like Ashoka, Akbar

    • pravi

      Very good points. Though should be more structured

  • the framing of the constitution was a diverse mix of often dissenting voices and views. the variety of ideological background and capacity to accept the opposing views and use it constructively has manifested in this biggest constitution in the world.

    while moving the objective resolution, nehru admired the consitutional priciples framed post american revolution that stood the test of time. he admired how the constitution was framed despite heavy odds during the french revolution and advocated the liberty equality and fraternity principle. also russian revolution affected thousands of other llike him. he was a staunch socialist and espoused socialist values.

    ambedkar owing to millenias of inustice to his caste, and sought the abolition of untouchability, and espoused equality and affirmative action for deprived sections.

    the minority question was realized through examples in eastern european failures and adequate safeguards were established.

    the rule of law bequeathed by the british remaiend the guiding light of the nation and the constitution. all the members of the constituent assembly remained firm about the importance of democracy and fundamental rights of people. the sovereignty of people remained a top priority, with universal adult franchise.

    considering deep religious nature of society, the religious freedoms were specifcally mentioned in the constitution and treatment of all religions equally.

    many factors including domestic, traditional, contemporary and international facitrs were responsible for the framing of such a vast constitution that explicitly mentions all of them iin a succint language.

    PL REVIEW FRNDS 🙂

  • CVK

    Constituent Assembly of India, formed by the provincial elections of 1946. The leaders were
    in the responsibility of creating a constitution that should stand for the aspirations
    of people of new India. They took events from the all around the world and
    fitted them in the Indian picture.

    1) Government of India Act, 1935: Most of the striking features of this Act was retained by the Assembly. Federal Scheme, Judiciary, Emergency provisions…

    2) Secular principle: the Hindu – Muslim riots during the partition made them to assure protection to the minorities and religion. Separate electorate was abolished.

    3) Federal Structure with unitary bias: the riots during partition created a strong centre to control or take over the machinery of the state during trouble against Constitution.

    4) Rights and values: introduction of western Education, the elite leaders inspired from American, French and Russian revolution the Constituent Assembly made India a Liberal, Equal, and Fraternal and Socialistic country assuring every citizen fundamental right.

    5) Social hierarchy: the problems of untouchability, oppression and exploitation of lower castes for many centuries. Untouchability was abolished, reservations in the political system to hear their voices.

    6) The works and experience from Gandhi caused the inclusion of Gandhian values to DPSP.

    it was this constitution which got its insights from its colonial rule lives as guiding principle for India.

  • harry

    historical forces shaped vision of indian constitution-
    1. influence of french, american, russian, irish revolution.
    2. influence of the constitution adopted elsewhere like britain,usa, australia, canada,germany, japan.
    3. influence of act of 1909, 1919 which made us know the true character of british colonial rule.
    4. act of 1935 which had deep impact and many parts were borrowed from it like instruments of instructions became directive principles of state policy.
    4. influence of gandhiji. gandhian principles became the base in every aspect from defining fundamental rights or DPSP to no separate electorate to depressed class or any other class.
    5. objective resolution of pt. nehru which became the base for the preamble of india and provided the true vision of independent india.
    6. works and ideology of br ambedkar for without whose efforts the special reservations for scheduled persons was not possible.
    7. the glory of ancient character of ashoka, the struggle of 1857 and revolution for freedom struggle features were also taken care of.
    8. the riots between different castes and religion gave a deep lesson of being secular and taking care of minorities.

  • The major historical forces includes the major events and personalities, including formation of congress and political movements but the present constitution and ideas were the roots in the different acts and legislations adopted by british india and as constitution is full of acts and amendments, i think these acts played important role in shapung of the constitution.
    a) Regulating act of 1773, it laid down the foundation of central administration of India. Provided executive council, and establishment of Supreme Court at Calcutta in 1774.
    b) Charter act of 1853, idea of separate executive and legislative council. Introduction of open competition for civil services, Local representation and first mini parliament.
    c) GOI act 1858 the secretary of state nearly similar to present Prime Minister Concept and viceroy of India from which president’s concept came. Appointment of representative for provincial administration led to concept of governor.
    d) Indian council act 1861, introduction of legislative council at provincial level. Concept of ordinance without the concurrence of legislative council, during an emergency.
    e) Indian council act of 1892, provided discussion of budget, addressing question to the executive. Nomination of non-official members.
    f) Indian council act of 1909, provided asking of supplementary question, and moving resolution of budget.
    g) GOI act 1919, the concept of central and provincial subject was introduced. Introduction of bicameralism, direct election in the country and Indian legislative council .separation of central and provincial budget.
    And finally the major contributor GOI ACT of 1935 which added followings:
    1) Federal list, provincial list and concurrent list.
    2) Provincial autonomy.
    3) Set up of federal courts.

    • Radhika

      i think u have missd the larger picture here.. only concentrated on legislative factors and missed out on social, economic and geopolitical factors.

      • pujar

        agree with u @Radhika…

      • Yes u r right and now its clear after i saw yours points , will try best from next time. Thanks for helping.

  • pujar

    On August 14-15, 1947 midnight, On eve of independence one side it was happy movement, another side it’s the time to wake and use opportunity for designing the glorious India.The responsibilities of designing future of independent India was in the hands of Indians.

    Along with great vision of leaders and experience learnt during the freedom struggle, the framing work of constitution started though the constituent assembly was framed on December 9, 1946 , it was more effective
    after independence. Some notable events which contribute for vision of the Indian Constitution.

    –In 1928, Motilal Nehru and 8 other congress leaders drafted Indian constitution and In 1931,Karachi session, INC dwelt how the Indian constitution should look like,
    Helped in Universal adult franchise,
    Right to freedom and equality and protecting rights of minorities.
    –Political experience from 1937 election for provincial legislature and minister to British India
    Helped in designing political institutions.
    –Government of India act 1935.
    Helped in Laws and procedures for building basic of institutions.
    –Ideals of French revolution incorporated like “Liberty, equality, fraternity”
    –Parliamentary practice of Britain.
    –Bill of rights in US for fundamental rights.
    –Socialistic ideals of 1917‘s Russian revolution,Helped in designing systems based on social and economic equality.

    The most difficult and basic foundation work of independent India was completed and drafting Constitution was published in January, 1948 and people were given eight months for review and finally adopted on November,
    26, 1949

    • pujar

      friends review please

    • pravi

      I think introduction was so long and hampered word limit.
      Review mine also and be critical as far as possible ,(eager to improve.)

      • pujar

        thanks for review… i guess 241 words, i will try to write precise

  • pravi

    When our Constitution maker gathered to frame and discuss on the constitution no one was having experience of framing it and it is obvious that historical forces will shape the vision of constitution.Many domestic and international events influenced constitution maker that made way in constitution.
    1)colonial repression – Whole country never want any alien rule and so the ‘sovereign’ word came in constitution.
    2) Partition- Partition after independence created fear in the minds of minority and should be vented out and we adopted secular structure.
    3) American and French revolution- These great revolutions acquainted us with Idea and importance of equality and liberty,so as revolution in Soviet Union influenced many toward Sociealist idea.
    4) Old constitutional experiences- Many constitution were older than 100 years at the time of 1946 and their progress and difficulties were well studied that made our Constitution flexible and Amendable.
    5) Adult franchise, Abolition of untouchabilty are also the product of freedom struggle and experiences of taller leaders while struggling for freedom.

    • Radhika

      nice

      • pravi

        Thanx radhika, I will be more happy if u help me improve by commenting critically.

    • Anukan

      Nice answer.
      But I think intro could be cut short. And you can add more points such as- Gandhian principles, freedom struggle, act of 1935, experiences from the provincial elections, diversity of India.
      Good luck pravi.

      • pravi

        THANXXX a lot Anukan. Inputs are well taken and thanks to insights also for giving such a platform for discussion.

        • Anukan

          Pravi, can you review my answer?
          Question no. 2.
          N yes, we all are very grateful to insights. 🙂

    • pujar

      good answer…
      —2nd point , i didnt feel relevent to the question.since historical forces.

      • pravi

        Ohhhh I think I made blunder in 2 point. Well pointed. Thank you . That is beauty of discussion , I would have never thinked of that.

    • IWRA

      Second part of first line of your introduction makes it weak.
      Your 2nd point (Partition) is not properly justified and doesn’t fit into the overall picture.

      Rest are OK,but lack of a comprehensive analysis and criticality is missing.
      Try to add conclusion whenever possible.

      • pravi

        Thanxx for inputs, I will try to improve.
        I agree that Partition point was not properly justified but don’t think it doesn’t fit in picture.About criticality, Question asked about examining so I have not added critical points. And I agree and try to improve that Answer lacked comprehensive analysis.

        • IWRA

          Its just that I became too critical.Its always easy to evaluate,so take it in that spirit only.In return u can check my answers and point out the flaws.

          • pravi

            You have every right to criticise me . Ur review is one of the most useful one. thanxxx and keep reviewing .

  • Radhika

    Forces that shaped vision of constittion
    1) Positive secularism – to root out religious dogmas, like caste system, untouchability, etc
    2) Fraternity – bloody battle between hindu muslims
    3) Equality – due to caste and class differences rooted in religious systems both hindu and muslims
    4) Fundamental rights – oppressive nature of colonial system
    5) Sovereignity – Historic subduction by British rule
    6) Democracy – to provide equal representation to all including women to alleviate and bring social and political equity and rule by people
    7) Republic – to end the rule by a monarch in Princely states which was mostly self aggrandising
    8) Socialist – to bring about change in life of the farmers who were historically exploited by zamindars and colonial masters
    9) Justice and Rule of law – to counter the historic highhandedness of the upper class
    10) Parliamentary structure – familiarity with this system due to intricate understanding of British Parliamentary system and its coorporation in Govt of India Act 1935
    11) Fedral Structure with centralising power – to give autonomy to states while at the same time preventing disintegration after bitter partition of Pakistan

    Thus Indian constitution was influenced by historic developments which helped the country maintain its unity and integrity and promoted sense of nationalism and helped India survive and thrive.

    • Anukan

      Nice and crisp.

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • BISMARCK

      very nice answer

      • Radhika

        thankss

    • pravi

      Large point covered still in word limit . Awsome
      only thing, last 4-5 points which started by word ‘to’ indicates why we incorparate that in constitution ,rather than it should be like-from which historical events that influenced.
      You can correct me always.

      • Radhika

        u r right.. i realised it as soon as i completed the answer

    • Much better elaborated. Thanks for review once again.

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • IWRA

      quite comprehensive.

      • Radhika

        thankss

    • Pragya

      Awesome..the answer provides great clarity. To the point answer.

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • Peshva

      nice

      • Radhika

        thankss

        • Manoj Bhardwaj

          Excellent..keep it on…

          • Radhika

            thnks

    • Ridhu Shree

      Great answer… 🙂

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • Ruby

      Really great, i was struggling to reduce the word limit, but yours is a good approach to write everything within word limit:)

      • Radhika

        thnks

    • Madhu Babu

      Introduction is mission other wise it really good

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • ashwin kumar p

      Just Wow

      • Radhika

        thank

    • NSP1991

      Nice answer….

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • waytoias

      nicely written …..:)

      • Radhika

        thnx

    • Roshan Tiwari

      nice answer Radhika.
      Some of my suggestions to improve.

      Under socialist we can add working class as well who were also exploited.

      We can also add Freedom of thoughts,expression, faith and beliefs has significant impact our Constitution and very important which allows fair criticism which is one fundamental quality and beauty of democracy.This is also a framework where secularism can stand.

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • jai pandey

      Wow!..that’s on of the best approaches i have seen while writing an answer….

      • Radhika

        thanks

    • mucharla

      simply superb analysis

      • Radhika

        thnks

  • rajesh singathia

    Vision of indian constitution was to have a sovereign republic india where people have fundamental rights of equality, freedom and speech. while introducing Objective Resolution in Constitution assembly, Nehru had outlined the basic principles for our constitution. and these principles were aspired from many historical events all over the world.

    even while addressing the assembly Nehru referred to American revolution, french revolution and many other. he urged to have a spirit to make our own constitution like the people in other parts of the world had while they made theirs.

    basic principles of equality, fraternity and freedom were taken from the american and french revollutions. Experience of these western democracy was utilised as a guiding light and many advance principles were evolved on the basis of experience of these countries.

    even the series of contstitution reforms undetaken by the british in year 1909, 1919 and 1935 on the demand of people, we acting as a support and could be utilized as they were tried and tested methods on our people.

    these reforms has helped us to choose parliamentary form of govt. as we have tested it over the years and it seemed most appropriate form of democracy to the nationalist at that time.

    we can see that our constitution is longest in the world and that is understandable looking to the size and diversity of the country. we have taken many ideas from other country’s constitution, modified them as per our requirement and implemented them as per will of our people.

    many historical events at that time had a major influence on the making of our constitution.

  • ARJUN Sharma

    Indian constitution is a living document which has resisted the tide of changing times and society through self adjusting and ecological outlook. It owes its existence to several historical forces discussed viz.

    Mughals:-
    1. Multicultural society (A-25 to A-27 right to freedom of religion) – a prominent feature during Mughal era especially Akbar and jahangir.
    2. Secularism & Socialism as propounded by Ala din Khilji and Akbar.
    3. Democratic ideals of Tipu Sultan & French revolution.((Jutice, liberty, equality in preamble)

    Mauryan:-
    1. 3 tier government structure similar to Mauryan administration. (73rd and 74th Constitutional amendment)
    2. Rule of Law of Mauryan Ad.

    Buddhism and Jainism

    1.Peace,prosperity and friendly relation with neighbor as doctrine of foreign policy in form of VASUDHEVA KUTUMBKAM and panchsheel. (Article-253)

    Colonial british history:-
    1. Parliamentary system.
    2. Federal polity (Centre state deistributio of subject and power)
    3. Free and fair election (A-324-329)
    4.All Indian service (A-309-312)

  • Bipin Gupta

    Indian constitution which encompasses every aspect of india’s culture and it’s diversity. India’s constitution making was having a deep relation which happen in our past and a clear epics can be seen in our constitution. Either it was” Objective resolution” or equality to all caste and religion of india.The following factor which led to form Indian’s constitution
    1:-India as a secular country which was it’s suffering from long time of equality and religious differences.
    2:-India as a independent sovereign republic it was introduced by Nehru which guarantee

    it’s citizen justice, equality which was inspired from Russia. USA and other country revolution.
    3:-India’s fundamental duty also was inspired to our historical discrimination which were present before India’s independence.
    Thus indian constitution were major part of our our old happening which became part of our constitution.

  • Sumant K. Mehta

    Members of Indian Constituent Assembly were influenced by several historic events like French Revolution, American Revolution, Russian Revolution. These events were driven by several forces and these forces in turn shaped the vision of Indian Constitution.
    These forces are :-
    * Liberty/Freedom -> source of Fundamental Rights in India Constitution.
    * Fraternity
    * Equality
    * Soverereignity
    * Democracy
    * Secularism.

  • dt

    vision that shaped our constitution are as follows
    1. Fundamental rights: because of the oppressive nature of british rule our for fathers wanted to secure fundamental rights for us which can not be repealed by state under any condition.
    2. Equality: Indians had been denied oppurtunity compared to their britsh counterpart so constitution ensure equality irrespective of caste, color and creed
    3. Welfare state: to bring the backward classes and scheduled class in to the main stream
    4. socialism: the expoitative nature of britsh rule which was capitalist
    5. fraternity: to avoid communal riots
    6. justice: social economic and political to all levels of society which was restricted to only some people during british time
    7. soverginity; British dragged india in to several wars against indians will so indians made it sure by including soverginity in constitution to take their decision themselves
    8. secularism: respect to all religion
    9. Democracy : Universal adult suffrage so that every indian can feel its participation in nation building
    10. republic : head of the union should be elected one and not a monarch

  • Nafi

    Forces that shaped vision of the constitution;
    Elimination of the word democratic and socialist from Nehru’s objective resolution due to an influenced from the past historical forces.
    As per his perspective the word Republic contains democratic.It is constructive and borrowed from past experience.
    From the above Nehru’s can understand that the vision of the constitution linked with the french and Russian revolution as well. The constituent making was done after the long struggle for freedom and liberty

  • singhr

    Indian constitution
    is a monumental work and provide a foundation for law of land.the constitution
    is the mosaic of several provisions adopted from various democracies which were
    shaped according to the need of the country.the constitution is influenced by
    the re4gulations made by British administration viz. GOI act 1935, GOI act
    1919, Indian Council Acts1909,1861,1891.

    The federal
    structure, federal court, Union public services ,state and joint public
    services, wer taken from GOI act 1935.

    Rule of law was adopted from British jurisprudence which
    provided equality before law.

    Indian councils act
    provided the foundation to representative democracy and the Parliament.

    Ordinance provision
    and cabinet ministers feature were adopted from the IC Act 1861.

    Secularism as the
    nature of state was adopted because of
    diverse cultures abd religions in the countery and historical incidences of communal tensions in pre
    independence india.

    The office of
    Governor and president as ceremonial heads, Civil Service were the direct influence of British admisinstration on Indian
    Constitution.

    However , numerous
    features were taken from constitutions of onther countries .For example- centralizing
    tendency of state structutre from Canada, Independent judiciary and Rigid
    constitution from America. There were
    several Novel features which were the result of vision of founding fathers of
    constitution to address the challenges ahead were Socialism for reducing
    concentration of wealth and egalitarian development,fundamental duty,directive
    principles for state ,emergency provision which made Indian constitution a key
    for strengthened governance.

    • vishal

      good attempt .but
      Indian Council Acts 1892 is there not 1891.

      • singhr

        thanks vishal. i missed that.

  • Bhanu Saurabh

    The first demand to have a constituent assembly to frame
    the Indian Constitution was credited to M.N.Roy, the pioneer of Communist Party
    of India (CPI) in 1934 but the forces to form the Indian constitution are:

    1. The democratic seeds in the Indian were sowed
    long backed but they got their chances in legislative council after the Indian Council
    Act (ICA) of 1861, into the provincial assemblies after ICA, 1892. The further
    expansion of Indians in government was manifested by ICA, 1909 and Government
    of India (GoI) Act, 1919. They gave the desire to Indians to have their own constitution.

    2. The evils of Indian society, British atrocities,
    lacking of basic civil right, failure of ICS, Case and Religion based Divide
    and Rule policy, the unjust judiciary, etc gave rise of the socialist, sovereign
    democratic republic where the citizens were vested with fundamental rights, equality
    before law, reservation for SCs and STs, abolishing of hereditary titles and a
    fair judiciary.

    3. The administrative system, quasi federal nature,
    the defense, the law and order maintenance, etc. was much derived from the GoI
    Act 1935.

    4. Several other constitution of the world also
    worked as source of inspiration like civic rights and separation of power between
    the three organs of the government from US constitution, cancelling of
    fundamental right during emergency from Weimer constitution, appointment of
    Governor from Canada, election of President from Irish constitution, etc.

  • Ruby

    Development of the Indian constitution was the result
    of the evolution of two centuries of freedom struggle in the particular and the Indian culture of over thousands of years in general. Few factors are:

    1. Concepts of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity: These Inspired by the call of the modern civilization in the global world around. Also their gross violation in the country when Indians reduced of their dignity while being referred as ‘bloody Indians’ or ‘Indians and Dogs not allowed’. The constitution makers solemnly resolved to protect the basic human rights of human dignity against the tyrannical state

    2. Universal franchise and Political Equality:The power of the masses which shook the foundations of british empire in India gave the confidence for the adoption of bold experiment of ‘right to vote for all’

    3. Blend of Parliamentary Sovereignty and Judicial Supremacy: Indian constitution strikes a balance between the will of the people and ‘limitation of this sovereignity’. The two centuries of British rule and the experience of ‘blatant misuse of sovereignty if given unauthorized power’ served as an important factor

    4. Secularism and Multiculturalism: The historical peaceful co-existence of various different religions and culture all flourishing wonderfully under a Hindustani umbrella was a strong factor. Along with this the practical realization of loosing the country into tits and bits if the venomnous serpents of communalism, regionalism allowed to raise their heads

    5. Directive Policies stressing Community Living, Socialism, Economic Justice: The ancient, medieval culture of communes, panchayats, mahajanpads all served as historical factors to restore this system
    back. Gandhiji along with many nationalists immensely believed in ‘India living in her villages’ and ‘Swaraj’

    6. Foreign policy of ‘Peaceful coexistence’ strongly influenced by ‘Dhamma’ of Ashoka, ‘vasudhaiv Kutumbkam’ etc

    7. Special provisions for different states,regions, backward classes, tribals all were with a view to give a specialrecognition to the hitherto oppressed and exploited for centuries

  • chaitanya

    The historical forces that shaped the vision of the Indian constitution are
    largely the effects of the colonial rule.

    1.
    Indian independence came along with a lamentable
    partition of the country. The partition witnessed lot of perpetrations against
    the religious minorities in both the countries. So it was one of the foremost aspects
    of the vision of the constitution to make the country secular with particular
    protection to the minorities in safeguarding their religions and traditions and
    the right to religious freedom.

    2.
    The exploitative economic nature of the colonial
    rule clearly showed the need of a social state in the country. This was
    declared in the Directive Principles of the State policy (DPoSP) and later
    added to the preamble

    3.
    The fall of handicraft industries and the
    consequences made the constitutional makers to put the encouragement of
    handicraft and other small scale industries as one of the DPoSP.

    4.
    India needed unity and the doubts over this grew
    with the partition of the country so our constitution was made largely favoured
    to the centre to protect the country’s unity

    5.
    The influences of the Western and European
    revolutions made India to recognize the natural rights a man enjoys and hence
    the right to equality, liberty and life are included in the fundamental rights.

    Indian constitution used not just the historical events it
    passed through but thoroughly analyzed other constitutions of other countries
    and hence our vision of constitution took the best practices from the
    experiences of the whole world.

  • Ankit

    The greatest historical force that shaped the Indian Constitution was it’s struggle for freedom from a foreign imprialist power. It taught them to value freedom and democracy which are seen in Constitution (Right to Freedom, Election Commission)
    – Experience of inequalities due to socio econimic background. This made the framers of our constitution include provisons like Right to Equality in the constitution. Also due to the sectarian strifes in the country the constitution was made secular in character with Cultural and Educations right for minority groups and Right to Conscience.
    – A strong centre was chosen to foster a sense of pan national patriotism and discourage regional indentities to take over national ones.
    – Socialism and Russian Revolution gave Directive Principles a clear socialist bend
    – Mahatma Gandhi’s values find voice in the Directive Principles of State Policy too.
    – French and American revolutions leading to their own Constitution from which the constitution has borrowed a lot.
    The Indian constitution is one of the largest living constitutions in the world and is a result of a confluence of various factors.

  • romila

    A Constitution of a country speaks about the common will, goals and aspiratipns of its citizens as to how they want themselves to be goverened. It establises the basic character of a government and is responsible for the framework and distribution of powers between the different of the government.
    Indian Constitution was formed on the basis of common goals of indian people that were expressed during the national movement which was reflected in the Obejective Resolution of the Constituent Assembly(Group of leaders and activists who participated in indian national movement for freedom and independence and represented the voice of the nation).
    The Constitution provides expression to ideas of equality, liberty, sovereignty, democracy and cosmopolitan identity which were earlier denied by the British government during their rule in India. They practised capitalism and exploited Indian masses for the development of their homeland.
    The historical forces which shaped the vision of the Indian constitution are
    1) India was not sovereign and was under the influence of British colonial government.
    2) Freedom of any form was denied to the people of India.
    3) Authoritative nature of the British government that threatened the human rights. Indian masses who were the fabric of the nation had no say in the affairs of the government and its instititions. The British rule was imposed upon them.
    4) Curtailment of liberty.
    5) Unequal treatment and discrimination on the basis of caste, class, sex, color religion and place of birth in the matters of public and employment.
    6) The British rule was purely undemocratic as there was no provision of election.
    7) Development of communal feelings among hindus and muslims by the Britishers who practiced Divide and Rule policy.
    8) Inspiration from French and Russian revolution.
    Thus, all these factors shaped, envisioned and directed the Indian Constitution by the Indian national leaders.

  • Guest

    The constitution of a nation is the sacred, fundamental
    basic law. It embodies customs, mores, values, precedents, culture and so on. It
    is the basis for the governance of the country. Historical sources that shaped
    vision of our constitution.
    1. Sovereignty – Dominion status provided by British rule
    was not in conformity with the dignity of the Indian nation.
    2. Republic Democratic – Ancient India culture where there
    was “Sabha”, “Samiti” for each village or group of village and the head was
    elected by the people.
    3. Fraternity – cultural, ethnic, religious, social
    diversity and of course Partition.
    4. Dignity of individual – Fraternity cannot be realized
    unless dignity of individual maintained.
    5. Equality – Due to Various cast movement, Backwardness,
    Class difference.
    6. Justice (Social, Economic, Political) – India’s “Unity in
    Diversity “motto acknowledges that there is an underlying linkage and
    interconnection among geographically, socially, economically diverse group in India.Managing the diversity forces the framer for various checks.
    7 . Fundamental Right – Our experience with British Rule was
    painful because basic right were dependent on the whim of the ruler, Hence Framer secure the basic right which cannot be trampled.
    8. Socialism – British economic drain policy, influence
    framer for establishing a flavor of welfare state.
    9. Secularism – Religious diversity,
    10. Federal Structure & Parliamentary form of GOVT –
    Influence of GOVTof india act 1935, and Familiarity with the parliamentary
    system (UK).
    Apart from that various external influence (French Revolution, America Independence,World War I & II ) .

  • Cherubic A’int I

    This is my first answer writing . Kindly request everyone to review .

    The constitution of a nation is the sacred, fundamental
    basic law. It embodies customs, mores, values, precedents, culture and so on. It
    is the basis for the governance of the country. Historical sources that shaped
    vision of our constitution.
    1. Sovereignty – Dominion status provided by British rule
    was not in conformity with the dignity of the Indian nation.
    2. Republic Democratic – Ancient India culture where there
    was “Sabha”, “Samiti” for each village or group of village and the head was
    elected by the people.
    3. Fraternity – cultural, ethnic, religious, social diversity and of course Partition.
    4. Dignity of individual – Fraternity cannot be realized unless dignity of individual maintained.
    5. Equality – Due to Various cast movement, Backwardness,Class difference.
    6. Justice (Social, Economic, Political) – India’s “Unity in
    Diversity “motto acknowledges that there is an underlying linkage and
    interconnection among geographically, socially, economically diverse group in India. Managing the diversity forces the framer for various checks.
    7 . Fundamental Right – Our experience with British Rule was
    painful because basic right were dependent on the whim of the ruler, Hence Framer secure the basic right which cannot be trampled.
    8. Socialism – British economic drain policy, influence
    framer for establishing a flavor of welfare state.
    9. Secularism – Religious diversity,
    10. Federal Structure & Parliamentary form of GOVT –
    Influence of GOVTof india act 1935, and Familiarity with the parliamentary
    system (UK).
    Apart from that various external influence (French Revolution, America Independence,World War I & II ) .

  • ThirdEye

    Indian constitution is an expression of various views developed over the years of subjugation by the British, to eliminate irrational practices entrenched in Indian society, an effort to bring modern thoughts and aspects of civil liberties. Historical forces that shaped vision of Indian Constitution are:

    Political:

    The sovereignty that Indians were denied. In aspects of foreign relations, participation in war, drawing boundaries between countries etc Indians were not involved. Thus constituent assembly has included in the preamble that India is a sovereign nation.

    Democracy became the core principle and it is with people power that the country’s development is linked with. This aspect developed over a period of time and is reflected since formation of Indian National Congress.

    The conflicts that arose with judiciary and executive powers being in control of same authority, the development of concept of separation of powers. It was felt that separtion of powers also enable accountability and responsibility.

    Economic:

    Economic critique of the British India, exploitation and its exposure by leaders led to adopting a socialist behavior of state. To ensure that every person receives benefit from the state.

    The deteriorating standard of life of various occupations like artisanship, handicrafts etc led to the cooperation to the rural livelihood by encouraging small and medium industries.

    Religious:

    Freedom of religion, free profession and practice of religion was encouraged after seeing the wave of communalism and later chaos during partition, in order to ensure peace and harmony among different religions.

    For ensuring equitable justice in literacy, allowed religious institutions to setup their educational institutions.

    Cultural:

    In the name of westernisation or modernisation, Indian communities need not lose their identity. Few sections believed western practices superior to that of Indian. Thus Indian constitution encouraged all sections to preserve their ethnicity, identity, language, customs and traditions.

    Despite certain concepts like fundamental rights, fundamental duties, directive principles etc being taken from foreign nations, Indian constitution ensured guidance to the Indian citizens in their all round development.

    • Wanderer

      Proper explanation to the question, as the ques demanded the historical background..
      My opinion best of the answers..

  • prayas

    Examine what historical forces shaped the vision of the Indian Constitution

    • shubhamguptambm

      plz give ur mail id

    • Radhika

      nice answer

      • prayas

        Thanks Radhika. Pls Keep reviewing

  • Legolas

    The Indian
    Constitution was shaped in great measure by the ideals and forces that propelled the freedom movement. Equality and Social justice were the
    corner stones of the freedom movement. It was to achieve these rights
    from an oppressive govt. that many agitations were launched. These
    remained the central vision of the constitution.

    A major
    historical event that left a scar on the Indian psyche and an influence
    on the Constitution was the Partition. Framed during the periods of
    mindless bloodshed and persecution of the minorities, the constitution
    laid safeguards for protection of the minorities.

    Partition was also an
    influence in the federalism debate. To equip the center with powers to
    control any such riots in future, it was made much more powerful that the
    states.

    Tribal movements, Social
    reform movements, movements for women upliftment, etc. that were taken up
    as part of the freedom struggle imbued these ideals into the vision of
    the constitution.

    The freedom struggles in
    other countries, the leaders’ deep knowledge of the French and American
    revolutions and the evolution of democracy in those countries helped them
    establish a clear set of principles for the constitution.

  • The historical factors that influenced the making of indian constitution can be interpreted as follows—-

    Burning picture of partition
    ——————-
    The memory and bitter experience of this Holocaust shocked everyone. It unambiguously formed the secularism as spirit of indian constitution. Even when question arose why uniform civil code had not been for muslims then Nehru pointed out the bad dream of partition from which they were still to be freed and further encroachment in their life would make them insecure.

    Vision of freedom fighters
    ———————–
    The vision of indian freedom struggle headed by gandhi was to establish a class less society free from discrimination on the ground of religion; race; caste; sex. Suffice it is to say that these are included within the ambit of fundamental rights pretty well.

    Minority vs majority
    ——————-
    This  was a hot topic in Indian political sphere and implanted in in the mind of the indians throughout misrepresentation of British policy. During debate of constitution making ; though ambedkar somehow asked for special reservation for dalits it was rejected. But after a prolonged debate; keeping mind of the vulnerable conditions of
    tribal people and some backward classes ;fifth and sixth schedule were included in constitution.

    Separate vs joined electorate
    —————————-
    From morley mino act to government of india act it was a highly poisonous ingredient to the crack of united indian nationalism. After observing its lethal effect in indian society throughout a long phase; the constitution makers dropped this with provision of reservation for backward classes.

    Socialism vs capitalism
    ——————–
    The vision of Indian freedom fighters was always against capitalist. The Marxist and socialist were against capitalist. Keeping view these factors though not pure but socialist vision was included in constitution initially.

    Centre vs provinces
    —————-
    Keeping view of the diverse indian culture and separatist tendency of states and to preserve the integrity of the whole country as visioned by nationalist ; federalism with strong centre and adequate provisions of states to preserve their own culture was included in indian constitution. Single constitution ( except Kashmir) ; single citizenship ; universal franchise were included in indian constitution to materialize the long demand of unity by the nationalist.

    Hindi vs English language
    ———————
    Keeping view of the prevalence of English in administrative sphere; English was retained as major language in most of the administrative and judicial processes but with an option to abolish it from administrative sphere after a certain period. But simultaneously; hindi and other regional languages were given equal importance and protection under constitution.

    Objective resolution the soul of indians
    ———————–
    The objective resolution of nehru envisaged the Democratic spirit of the whole indians that they dreamt from a long time back and it thus characterises the soul of indian constitution also.

    Thus; different socio- political and religious historical factors contributed  to the shaping of indian constitution.

  • Ajitesh89

    The Constitution of Indian republic is the product not of the political revolution but of the research and deliberations of a body of eminent representatives of the people. These representatives want to constitute India, by making a retrospect of the constitutional development.

    After the revolution of 1857, the British parliament started administering India directly under the Govt of India Act, 1858. However, the administration of county under this act is rigidly centralized, this is a time of bureaucratic development in India.

    The addition of non-official members in the executive council of Governor General had been started by the Indian Council Act,1861. These non-official members transact its business as legislative council. However no effective power is given to them, this act is a step forward in parliamentary type of system.

    The next reforms were regarding the distribution of power and growth of representative government. Indian Council Act, 1892, Morley- Minto reforms, 1909 and Montagu-Chelmsford report,1919 are the developments in this direction. However, these are the reforms that sowed the seeds of communalism.

    Indian constitution imitates many sections from the Govt of Indian act,1935. Before the enactment of this act, Simon commission already accepted that Dominion status was the goal of Indian political development. Therefore most of the Articles of this act are as according to the need of free India. However, Learning from the previous experiences of constitutional development, our representatives establish the concept of secular, Democratic and federal type of govt.