2) Discuss the events and other factors that transformed Mohandas Gandhi into Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa.

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

TopicThe Freedom Struggle – its various stages and important contributors /contributions from different
parts of the country. 

2) Discuss the events and other factors that transformed Mohandas Gandhi into Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa. (200 Words)

The Indian Express

  • Priyank Mishra

    Events nd factors which transformed Gandhi in South Africa :

    Intro : Young Gandhi Went for practising law temporarily for 1 yr however he stayed there for 21 year and it had huge impact on him which changed his life profoundly.
    Events & factors:
    1. Personal humiliation : like thrown out of train etc.
    2. Apathy of natives : racial discrimination
    3. He developed his own style of working out of this like ethics based understanding, Non violence as a tool, Satyagraha (insistence on truth). He called himself servent of truth instead of servant of India.
    4. Gradual development : He gradually learned and became polished from experiences.
    5. Understanding of fact that british power can’t be suppressed by force.
    6. He developed his understanding about india from the SA exposure : like what should be ideal for india- Swaraj (cooperative independence)
    7. International exposure : he read various international writers like tolstoy etc.
    8. Erosion of his religious doubts : Deeply influenced by Jainism, however remained highly secular.

    • Sumit Sharma

      Nice answer Priyank.

      • Priyank Mishra

        Thnx sumit

    • Ridhu Shree

      Good answer…

      • Priyank Mishra

        thnx Ridhu

    • Amol Ballal

      @priyank_mishra:disqus
      Nicely answered….))

    • Pragya

      Wonderful answer..Simple yet effective 🙂

    • rohan yadav

      good answer……. but missing the facts 1)hindu/muslim unity, 2)Brahmacharya, 3)Ahisma………

      plz review mine

    • Roshan

      well written

  • Sumit Sharma

    MohanDas Gandhi was born in India but Mahatma Gandhi was born elsewhere. Though named as ‘The Great Soul’ by his own country men, the seeds of Mahatma were sown in South Africa.
    Trained in British law & having full faith in British sense of justice, he was disgusted at the ways of life in this British colony. His values to stand by truth & speak against injustice were to provide the fuel for the spark of racism. He was influenced my many philosophers of the day like Leo Tolstoy.
    Factors which created Mahatma-
    He personally faced discrimination at the hands of white people for the first time when he was forced to leave a train despite having a ticket.
    The world in South Africa was completely opposite to the ways of life in Great Britain despite having the same rulers.
    Non Whites in South Africa were treated as lesser citizens which was not acceptable for the conscience of young Mohan Das.
    He was an educated Indian having knowledge of British law and was most capable to lead the illiterate & ignorant Indians.
    Events-
    The trigger was provided by mainly two events-
    – The law to carry certificates if one was non white.
    – Invalidation of marriages as per Indian Customs. (which Indians took as an insult)
    He chose Passive Resistance, went to jail with many other Indians and finally shared the negotiating table with Smuts leading to Gandhi- Smuts Agreement.
    By now he was a household name in India and his campaigns in Ahmedabad, Champaran & Kheda and his journey through Indian villages made the common religious Indian see him as a ‘Great Soul’ who can free them pf penury, slavery & opression.

  • The personality and spirit of a foreign educated indian person has forever changed in the land of south africa. From professional spirit ; a utter honorary sprit embraced mohandas labelling him as ” mahatma”.An attempt has been made to show the influence of incidents and factors that transformed his personality in the following way–

    charisma
    ———–
    It is the charisma that awakened the spirit of south Africans about the annihilation of their inherent rights. It is the charisma that made them stand on equal footing in seeking equal privileges for all whether it is in first class compartment in rail or in work.

    An innovation to be remembered for ages
    ————————–
    The discriminatory step by colonial government in South Africa in case of invalidating all marriages except conducted by Christian rites; toll tax on poor indentured labour; restriction of immigration of labour into south Africa led Gandhi to use satygraha ;a   combination of spiritual predominance over physical empowerment that shook the whole world.

    A notion of humanity
    —————–
    To stir the spirit of depressed activities gandhi established Tolstoy Farm with the help of different personalities whose model will later take initiatives of social Renaissance in india.

    A clarion call
    ————-
    Right from the throwing out of first class compartment in rail upto the utter racial discrimination in south africa; racial discrimination formed the spirit of gandhi  for the salvation of humanity and played prominent role in bringing out the voice from the masses against any discrimination of colonial rule.

    A saviour
    ———
    The world has remembered gandhi for his role of Messiah. He taught the illiterate; unconscious south Africans about their rights how to claim their rights ; how to germinate their voice. A london educated barrister is roaming among the poor; illiterate labours and gives them lesson how to live. Pranjivan mehta and tagore in real sense calls him ” mahatma”.

    A lesson
    ———
    Gandhi saw the evil effects of caste; slavery. He saw that spirit of people is not long lasting . social works are necessary to continue it. A pathan also came to kill gandhi in south Africa. He realized the hardships and challenges a leader has to face. All these strengthened his spirit and transformed his personality.

    Thus; a london educated barrister who visited a continent with professional purpose transformed his personality recognising his inner spirit of freedom from bondage for which he dedicated his entire life.

    • CoNuNdRuM_JustForMe

      nice answer

    • Pepper

      Your answer is really nice but may i ask 1 thing?

      Your answers covering all points (no doubt) but its too lengthy, how will u manage in exam. It seems like short essay.

    • JERRINMATTHEW

      gud one 1.. u comprehennd really well…nice stuffs for revision.
      Good Show…keep writing 🙂

    • ashwin kumar p

      My god what an answer lovely.

    • Roshan

      nicely written. Please review mine too. I am new here.

      • Hv nt been able to trace your answer.

        • Roshan

          Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi landed South Africa as a barrier, intended to practice to earn money. Later he stayed there for more than two decades and this stay completely transformed him to return as a mahatma. Nelson Mandela correctly said in this context, “You gave us Mohandas Gandhi; we return him to you as Mahatma Gandhi”.

          Gandhi ji personally felt the discrimination of apartheid. It was the personally felt humiliation which gradually helped to develop an empathy for the natives of Africa. Later Gandhi ji learnt the new and innovative method to struggle against the state injustice in the form of Satyagrah. He discovered the power of fearless nonviolence and truth. This, he implied not only as a political tool but also as a divine way to uplift the human race.
          But the most important thing that completed the transition of Mahatma into a globally renowned persona was the success. It also gave a boost of confidence to Gandhi ji.

          Thus events and factors that occured in south Africa shaped the later course of Indian national movement and we were able to get the leadership of Mahatma.

          reposted here

    • waytoias

      nice answer but …….i think it is “poll tax” not “toll tax”

    • Jeeves

      The answer is overall very good but too much word count…376 words (almost double), seems like a short essay, it would be difficult in the exam to manage.

  • Ridhu Shree

    A philosophy of struggle for political and human rights through non-violence which made Mohandas Gandhi into Mahatma Gandhi was developed when he was in South Africa.
    -When Gandhi arrived in British-governed Natal (in 1893) to practice law, he was asked to take the long trip to Pretoria of South Africa for his case.
    -In that travel Gandhi was needed to transfer to the third class compartment although he had a first class ticket since he was not a European.
    -He was thrown off the train in Pietermaritzburg on refusal and there started his protest for discrimination.
    -He was beaten by a driver for refusing to make room for an European passenger in the same travel.
    -Another day, in a Durban court, the Magistrate ordered Gandhi to remove his turban, which he refused to do so. This event was even reported in the South African newspapers which made him famous.
    -Gandhi extended his original period of stay in South Africa to assist Indians in opposing a Bill to deny them the right to vote. Though it was not successful, it grabbed the attention about the grievances of Indians in South Africa.
    -He helped found the Natal Indian Congress in 1894 and through this organisation, he molded the Indian community of South Africa into a unified political force.
    -Gandhi also organised an Indian Ambulance Corps for helping British at the Boer war (1899) to send a message to British about the capacity and responsibility of Indians. This added more respect towards his actions.
    -In 1906, Satyagraha was adopted for the first time in Johannesburg at a mass protest against the compulsion of registration of the colony’s Indian population. This forced South African leader Jan Christian Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi.

    Thus, these series of events made Gandhi to experiment the civil disobedience movement which was then implemented at large scale in one of the freedom struggles for the independence of India. These events also transformed him to be called the ‘Mahatma’ in Indian history.

    Please Review… 🙂

    • Priyank Mishra

      You have emphasised more on personal events, as we know Gandhi as a person never complained about his personal graviences, so it is not gud to associate gandhi’s rise with his personal humiliations otherwise he would have risen like hitler not gandhi :). Word limit shd also be kept in mind.

      • Ridhu Shree

        Seems I have written more story… Thanks for pointing out… 🙂

        • ThirdEye

          your points are good..linking story with his views will do..Travel – against racism, turban – his fight for rights, natal congress – his leadership, boer war – his service etc. Nevertheless good job..keep writing

          • Ridhu Shree

            Thanks a lot… 🙂

    • rohan yadav

      well written , have covered points extremely well……… plz review mine….

      • Ridhu Shree

        Thank you so much… 🙂

    • Hi,
      I am only a newbie but here is my thought:
      You indeed gave a comprehensive list of events! I think you should also mention some of the factors. I think some lines must be spared for as to how did these events affect him.
      can you look at my points too?
      Thanks

      • Ridhu Shree

        Yes, Thank you… 🙂

  • target

    Mahatma Gandhi, as we know today has been transformed largely by the events in South Africa. Mahatma Gandhi had went to South Africa in 1893 for work. He went there as a barrister regarding a case. Initially, the contract was for one year but the events of South Africa forced him to fight for the cause of the native Indian. The events and factors which transformed Mohandas Gandhi into Mahatma Gandhi are as follow:-
    1) In 1893, Gandhi was thrown out of the train from Durban to Pretoria, despite having a first class ticket. This made him realise the widespread discrimination prevalent among Indians
    2)Transval event
    2) Protest against registration of Marriages Act

  • harry

    events-
    1. thrown out of the train to petesburg in spite of having ticket.
    2. opposition of racial discrimination.
    3. protest against registration of marriage act.
    4. transval march from natal to transval.
    other factors in his transformation-
    1.there he first articulated the true meaning of india’s freedom.
    2. there he became deeply hindu and deeply secular with profound understanding of world’s religion.
    3. there he embraced the virtues of truth and non violence.
    4. his life in south africa also made him global citizen and his thoughts were inspired from many world philosophers.
    5. there he redefined the practice of politics. constructive social work, building a community of selfless social servants, uniting indians of all faiths,care for the needy, empowerment of women, inexpensive ways of healing and healthcare, high standards of cleaning and sanitation.
    6. conquering adversary with love was another hallmark he learned there.
    thus, nelson mandela rightly mentioned to indians,”you gave us mohandas gandhi, we gave you back mahatma gandhi”

  • Indomitable Will

    Mohandas Gandhi
    went to South Africa in 1893 for his client case but came back to India in 1915
    as Mahatma Gandhi as called by Pranjivan Mehta and Tagore.

    From the beginning
    of his South Africa journey, he encountered incidents which made him to change
    his understanding. His personal insult and discrimination while traveling in a
    train from Durban to Pretoria, the Magistrate in Durban court ordered him
    to remove his turban, invalidating those marriages which are not performed in
    line with Christian rites, the denial of voting rights to Indians had made
    think to remove such discriminatory policy and prejudice against other
    communities by the colonial British.

    To fight such
    cause, a great deal of help was done by noblest thoughts from foreign minds
    like Socrates, Plato, Ruskin, Tolstoy and many others. It had strengthened him
    in principle. He embraced the truth and non-violence in struggle against all
    prejudices and practiced it in true sense. He discovered the concept of Satyagraha
    in 1906 from Islam and Islamic concept of Jihad and began its practice in his
    entire personal and political struggle.

    The activity like
    Tolstoy farm has helped him in constructive social work, building a community
    of disciplined and selfless social servants. His ethics based understanding and
    practice of faith made him secular and gained profound understanding and
    unshakable respect for world’s religion. His understanding about the society,
    community and nation was to create moral sustainable civilization.

    Thus the creator of
    Modern India who led the struggle of Independence had been shaped.

    • sagnya das

      covers all the points. only one advice try making short paras. it will increase scores
      Plzz review mine

      • Indomitable Will

        thanks sagnya…will do sure…

  • Anany

    Gandhiji during his two decades stay in South Africa(1893 to 1915) was transformed from an ordinary barrister fighting the case of firm to a great soul struggling for social justice and political freedom of all Indians.

    His entry at Pietermaritzberg station introduced him to racism and later the Durban court turban incident made him rethink about the social status of himself and other Indians in the British Empire.

    Gandhiji actively volunteered in the Boer wars of 1900 to disprove the British idea that Indians were not fit for “manly” activities involving danger and exertion. In 1906, against the
    Transvaal government’s new Act compelling registration of the colony’s Indian population, Gandhi adopted his still evolving methodology of Satyagraha for the first time. Asiatic Registration Act in Transvaal in 1907 convinced Gandhi that the method of protest, petition and prayer had failed and he evolved a new technique of ‘Passive Resistance’. It was in South Africa where Gandhiji started his community life in Phoenix Settlement and the Tolstoy farm.

    In South Africa he understood the idea of India and also the true meaning of India’s freedom. He devoured the noblest thoughts from foreign minds like Socrates, Plato, Ruskin, Tolstoy and many others and became an internationalist. Here only he redefined the practice
    of politics. Constructive social work; building a community of disciplined and selfless social servants; uniting Indians of all faiths, castes and linguistic communities in a common struggle for justice; care for the needy; empowerment of women; inexpensive ways of healing and healthcare; insistence on high standards of cleanliness and sanitation; conquering the adversary with love — all these and other hallmarks of Gandhian praxis first took shape in the
    experimental crucible of his internship in South Africa.

    • Akshay

      Good answer

      • Anany

        Thank you Akshay for reviewing.

    • sagnya das

      good one .plzz review mine

    • Anukan

      Nice answer.

    • Pragya

      Good answer.. But check the word limit. From where did you fetch the names of the Acts?

      • Anany

        Thanks Pragya. The names of Act are from wikipedia.

    • ThirdEye

      Last para summarised everything..nice ans

      • Anany

        Thanks.

  • sagnya das

    PLZZ Reveiw

    In Nelson Mandela ‘s words: “You gave us Mohandas Gandhi; we returned him to you as Mahatma Gandhi “. Its true. When Gandhi went to South Africa he was a lawyer with expensive tastes who insisted that Kasturba and his children learn to eat with spoon to become gentlemen. The person who returned from South Africa in 1915 was a saint simply dressed and ascetic ,with great understanding of masses and centre of penance as his motherland.

    Many events contributed to this sea change-

    1. He understood the irrational founding of discrimination when he was thrown out of first class compartment while traveling from Durban to Pretoria.He formed the idea of inclusive India

    2. He discovered his two weapons – satyagraha and non violence after going through writings of ancient scriptures of all religions as well as writings of Thoreau, Walden ,Tolstoy and experimenting his methods in the ‘ashrams ‘ he built- Tolstoy and Phoenix Farms

    3. These integration of ideas made him deeply Hindu as well as Secular

    4. Asiatic Registration Act in Transvaal, 1907 showed the grim picture of racial discrimination to Gandhi and lack of justice system which compelled him to start resistance i.e Satyagraha against British

    The events of South Africa transformed the persona of Gandhi and that period truely describes the journey of Gandhi to Mahatma.

    • Anukan

      Intro is really nice. But I think it is a bit lengthy.
      Rest all is very good.

      • sagnya das

        thanks 4 d review.yup intro is bit long. ll shorten it

    • rohan yadav

      very well written………keep it up……. plz review mine…….

      • sagnya das

        thanks..ll surely review urs

    • Indomitable Will

      intro short…elaborate ur 3rd point…good answer

    • Anany

      Excellent answer. Almost all important events are captured in the answer.

  • Akshay

    During his entire tenure of South Africa, Gandhi experienced extreme level of racial discrimination. In a court proceeding, he was asked by the magistrate to remove his turban. Once he was rejected hotel accommodation, which was said to be exclusively reserved for Whites. However, the most pressing discrimination was on his journey from Pretoria to Durban. He was thrown out of the train on account of travelling in First class train. The event completely transformed his life. While walking towards the dark waiting room, he saw a White man sitting in the waiting room. Gandhi described in his autobiography that at that moment, he was afraid of his life. He was afraid of the White man sitting in the waiting room. During this moment, he overcame his fears and took the bold decision to stay there and fight against the racial discrimination. His active non violent Satyagraha began from that moment. The personal humiliation in South Africa made him realise that humanity is above all religions and ethnic affiliation. Gandhi was transformed from an ordinary lawyer to a fierce advocate of social justice and equality and political freedom.

    • rohan yadav

      events well described …but factors missing friend…. —– just few lines for factors… —” During this moment, he overcame his fears and took the bold decision to stay there and fight against the racial discrimination. His active non violent Satyagraha began from that moment. The personal humiliation in South Africa made him realise that humanity is above all religions and ethnic affiliation. Gandhi was transformed from an ordinary lawyer to a fierce advocate of social justice and equality and political freedom.”……….

      plz review mine……

      • Akshay

        thanks for review..rohan

  • jothi

    Gandhi is one of the greatest person in indian history and led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world .he is called “mahatma gandhi”.
    The events and factors for the transformation are:
    1)JOURNALS & ARTICLES:
    He articulated the idea of india and its freedom.for him india should be inclusive without any
    discrimination and swaraj means co-operative self-rule.
    e.g)In 1893, Gandhi was thrown out of the train from Durban to Pretoria, despite having a first class ticket. This made him realise the widespread discrimination prevalent among Indians.
    2)He became secular and had great respect for all the world religions.
    3)Truth and non-violence and passive resistance
    e.g) transval event .
    1)The law to carry certificates if one was non white.
    2) Invalidation of marriages as per Indian Customs. (which Indians took as an insult in Africa)
    4)In 1906 (south Africa)he discovered islam and its concept of jihad.it led to the greatest contribution of “SATYAGRAHA”.he used this in all political struggles as well as in his personal life.
    e.g) In 1906, Satyagraha was adopted for the first time in Johannesburg at a mass protest against the compulsion of registration of the colony’s Indian population. This forced South African leader Jan Christian Smuts to negotiate a compromise with Gandhi.
    5)Southafrica made him to realize that he is a global citizen. He got the noblest thoughts
    from people like Socrates, Plato, Ruskin, Tolstoy etc.
    6)he redefined all the idiom and practice of politics only in south Africa.
    All these events made Gandhi to use it india against the british and led india to achieve
    its independence as visioned by many leaders and he was transformed form “mohandas
    gandhi” to “mahatma Gandhi” to india.

  • Anukan

    Though Mohandas Gandhi was born in India, he could discover himself only after he moved to South Africa. This discovery had a great impact on rest of the world.

    Young Mohandas, in S.Africa, experienced racial discrimination. He was thrown out of the railway, refused entry in a hotel, denied accommodation, ordered out of court for not removing his turban. These events changed his perspective.

    Further, slavery of Girmitiya- Indian bonded laborers- and their pity conditions inspired Mohandas to do ‘something’ for them.
    Four issues, primarily, agitated Mohandas-
    1. Asiatic Act – required every citizen’s fingerprint.
    2. Immigration Act- Restrictive provisions for immigration.
    3. Three pound tax – which hardly anyone could afford.
    4. Marriage Act- All unregistered marriages were void according to it.

    Mohandas fought for these issues with his methods- protest, petition and prayer.

    Experiences in S.Africa transformed Gandhi’s personality, steeling him for his upcoming role in India’s freedom struggle. It was a period of renaissance for him where he discovered himself, his weapon – satyagraha, where is insisted on truth, nonviolence and love. His vision was completely changed. The constructive social work, ensemble of selfless social servants, insistence of cleanliness, sanitation, morals, empowerment of women; ultimately proved to be crucial in Indian and world history.

    Work done by Mohandas in S.Africa, created a pathway for him to become a great soul. Truly global, secular, moral and a visionary Mahatma.

    • pravi

      Good one

  • Pragya

    Our experiences and our attitude towards events shape our character. Both Mahatma Gandhi and Jinnah had Gopal Krishna Gokhale as their mentor. But history has known one as an unshakeable secularist and the other as a fanatic communalist. The events and synchronicity that occurred in the life of Mahatma Gandhi during his stay in South Africa transformed him into a Mahatma from Mohandas, precious diamond from a diamond and a saint from a man. The impact of those events is recounted below:
    1. It was in SA that he understood he first understood & articulated the idea of India (inclusive) & it’s freedom (self-rule).
    2. After spiritual setbacks, he became a deep secular Hindu with great respect for all religions and faith.
    3. Truth and non-violence became his weapons for life during his struggle against racism in SA.
    4. His stay in SA made him a global citizen and an internationalist who devoured ideas of great leaders like Socrates, Plato, Tolstoy etc.
    5. In SA Gandhiji changed the meaning of Politics which now became constructive social work, uniting Indian of all faiths, care for needy.

    • rohan yadav

      well attempted ………but events correlation with factors missing……a conclusion is also missing….plz review mine…..

  • kamal

    Contrary to present practice of diamond mining in south Africa and polishing in india, Mohandas
    Gandhi was born in india but polished in south Africa to gain mahatma title. As
    long as he practice law within the limits of his profession he was well known
    lawyer but the moment he looked for the solution of problems beyond the law
    books he realized the value of selflessness, ethics, religion, brotherhood and
    most importantly peaceful opposition of wrong practices i.e. passive resistance
    or satyagraha.

    Many events
    like personal experiences of racial discrimination, registration of marriage
    act, orders to bear identity cards and limited geographical access for slaves
    and blacks lead mahatma to fight for a cause- freedom and equality. But on
    whole, society’s structure, colonial rule and unableness of deprived people to
    raise voice against discrimination shifted Mohandas to read world’s finest works.
    As central theme of all books he read, he recognized the need of leader and
    organized struggle.

    Thus south
    African experience persuaded mahatma to serve humanity and truth. Indian inner
    caste conflicts and domestic problems further broaden his views. These two
    countries produced Gandhi as ‘citizen of world’ whose ideas respected everywhere
    at present.

    • ARJUN Sharma

      Intro is gr8
      Add concrete points

    • Lucky

      Excellent intro, but perhaps didn’t answered fully

  • lucky

    Kindly review…

  • lucky

    kindly review,….earlier one znt clear..plz ignore…

  • rohan yadav

    One of the greatest figures of the twentieth century, and perhaps of the millennium,He was both one of the most successful Leaders of the century. He was charismatic, but he was also deliberate and analytical. Gandhi was very much a product of his times, yet one of his greatest sources of inspiration was the Bhagavad-Gita, written thousands of years ago. He was a politician, a writer, an intellectual and an orator. Without doubt he was a very complex man, but a man who believed in simple things.

    Gandhi was born into a minor Hindu political family, whose beliefs were influenced by Jainism (a non-violent religious group).Gandhi was a lack-lustre scholar, later deciding to be trained as a lawyer in London, where he resided from 1888 to 1891.After a brief stint unsuccessfully in an Indian law practice back home, he moved to South Africa in 1893, working as advisor to a well-to-do member of the Muslim Indian community.

    Gandhi spent 21 years in South Africa. A critical event in his life was one week into his stay there, where he was asked to leave the First Class compartment of a train by a European. Despite having the right ticket, he was forcibly removed from the train. He suffered other racial indignities in those early months.His two central ideas were born in South Africa. These were

    1) “Swaraj” (Independence for India, and personal spiritual renewal of all Indians),

    2)”Satyagraha” (truth, love and non-violence).

    Related to these two ideas was the “Constructive Programme” – Gandhi’s Social Reform platform, consisting of three points:

    1)Hindu/Muslim unity,

    2)The abolition of Untouchability

    3) “Swadeshi”, the manufacture and use of indigenous products.

    Whilst in South Africa he learnt from Jewish and Christian friends, and developed respect for the ideas of Leo Tolstoy amongst others. Tolstoy’s work “The Kingdom of God is within You” stated that all Government is based on war, and that one can only counter these evils through passive resistance. Gandhi also got involved in humanitarian activities.For example, he led a Red Cross unit in the Boer War, in 1899, and was decorated by the British authorities as a result.

    When he was about to leave Durban in 1894 to return home to India, he was galvanized by newly written comments in the papers about the proposed Natal Franchise Amendment Bill. Thus, he drafted the first Indian Petition to the Government in 1894, against the Bill, which took away voting rights from Indians. In 1894 he also founded the Natal Indian Congress to build support for the Indian cause. He actually succeeded in reducing some of the harshness of the bill.

    Another critical event was in 1906, when Gandhi organized an ambulance corps to go to Zululand.The intense suffering of the Zulu’s, and the lack of caring exhibited by the authorities for the wounded left him deeply moved.Gandhi had noted that nursing was one of his principal joys. In any event, in Zululand Gandhi made his famous vows:

    1)”Brahmacharya” – celibacy, an ancient Hindu vow.
    2)”Satyagraha” – truth, love and non violence, Gandhi’s own invention.
    3)”Ahisma” – non violence to all creatures, and vegetarianism, a Jain vow

    It was in 1904 that he first started a weekly journal (the “Indian Opinion”) and began living in communes, on the “Phoenix” Farm in Natal.In 1906 in the Transvaal, the Government wanted Indians to register and be fingerprinted “like criminals”. Gandhi and others refused to register.Gandhi at that moment galvanized his ideas into “Satyagraha”, and founded the Passive Resistance Association. Importantly, “Satyagraha” combined both Political and religious goals in Gandhi’s mind, for the first time, with a very clear focus an action.
    As a result of his activities, Gandhi became quite well known in India, and this gave a virtually instant platform for his activities when he returned.

    Thus the above mentioned events & factors transformed Mohandas Gandhi into Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa.

    • Pragya

      The events you have mentioned are very good. Very informative answer. Can you please share the source? The introduction was a bit too long making it cross the word limit.

      • rohan yadav

        thankx very much pragya…..extremely sorry for crossing the world limit, couldn,t stopped my self from writing………..
        SOURCE – “BIOGRAPHY OF GANDHI”—— i love this book, and have been reading since class 12……

      • rohan yadav

        thankx pragya. for reviwing, will try to be in wordlimit in future

    • Ridhu Shree

      I feel 1st two para not needed for this question, rest all good and very informative… 🙂

      • rohan yadav

        thankx ridhu shree……….for your reviewing & valuable sugesstions

    • sagnya das

      bit descriptive.try to shorten it. be to the point as the points u have written are good but with so many other things written ,examiner ll lose focus.
      apart from dat good ans

  • rohan yadav

    sorry guys, went into a longer version….plz review guys…plz provide your valuable inputs….

  • shankar

    For a purpose of seeking a decent and prosperous life, Mohandas Gandhi went South Africa as lawyer in the hope of excellent carier in the profession. But what we find, he became a true ascetic and saint and said to be ‘Mahatma’
    Events;
    -reaching S.A., his experiance of descrimination on his way to Pretoria, he exprienced descrimination such as;
    -thrown out off the compartment of the train on his way to Pretoria for his case inspite of possessing a first class traveling tickets, the reason was obivious; not being an european.
    -Repressive tax of the Colonial govt
    -Marriage; considered to be invalid not performing through Christian culture.
    -Denial of voting rights to Indian in SA.
    -large scale descriminatory and oppressive attitude of colonial govt.
    Factors;
    Overcoming the spiritual crisis he became a pure Hindu, while simultaneously becoming deeply secular and respect for all world’s religions.
    Individual as international citizen;
    -going through various foreign writers like Tolstey, Ruskin etc he gained immense knowledge regarding the belief and thought prevailing in the world. He vowed to be the servant of the truth and devoted whole to the service of humanity or human race such;
    racism, empowerment of women, right to live a decent and respected life.
    Vision for India;
    -articulated first in S A, Gandhi dreamt India and its’ freedom. Swaraj in true sense, for him, a system of self-rule in which individuals, communities and the nation strove to create a new sustainable moral civilization.
    Propaganda for the practice of politics;
    -constructive social work; building a community of disciplined and selfless social servants; uniting Indians of all faiths, castes and linguistic communities in a common struggle for justice;care for the needy and the most important; insistence on the high standard of cleaniness and sanitaiton.
    Thus, sacrificing his entire life for the welfare and care of common, careless, illiterate and unconscious people of not only India but also of the entire world made him Mahatma.

  • shiva051

    As Nelson Mandela said: “You gave us Mohandas Gandhi; we returned him to you as Mahatma Gandhi”, the principles he followed, the ideology he constructed, the path he destined and whatever he gave to the nation has been rooted inside him during his two decades of historical journey in South Africa. This transformation of a single individual which has enlightened the spirit of entire world, is a result of series of certain events and circumstances during those two decades.

    * Gandhi explored the ideals of Civil obedience, Non-cooperation and Satyagraha for the first time in South Africa during his struggle against racist and arbitary laws such as Transvaal Asiatic law amendment ordinance (1906), nullification of Hindu Marriages(1913) etc.

    * It is in South Africa, he has understood and redefined the meaning of India’s Freedom. For him the freedom is not only from colonial rule but also freedom from discrimination across entire nation.

    * Apart from his deep spiritual understanding towards Hindu, he also gained profound understanding and respect over all world religions.

    * Gandhi introduced for the first time Satyagraha (which emphasis truth and fearless non-violence) in South Africa. This strong and powerful technique has later influenced the masses in India’s struggle for liberation.

    * Life in South Africa has gifted him opportunity to inhale the thoughts of great global leaders such as Socrates, Plato, Tolstoy, Ruskin etc. This wisdom of internalisation was reflected in his leadership role in India’s national liberalisation.

    * He demonstrated to the world, a new pragmatic approach to political life which insisted on humanity, equality, empowerment, unity, integrity and hygiene, which later became noble political ideals for entire world even in this contemporary arena.

    • Anany

      Nice answer…

      • shiva051

        Thank you @Anany 🙂

    • Rushikesh reddy

      Best of all answers shiva:)

      • shiva051

        Thanks a lot 🙂

  • Bhanu Saurabh

    Mohandas Gandhi, the son of the Deewan of Rajkot and
    Bikaner Kaba Gandhi, belonged to the aristocrat class of India who had hardly
    seen any hardship in his life. He went to London in search of attaining better
    life as Barrister. Before leaving India his main concern was his promise to his
    mother to be a life-long vegetarian (as per “Gandhi before India” by R. Guha). But on his
    return he had altogether different objectives.

    In 1893 he went to South Africa to take up the cases of
    the Gujarati businessmen there. The incident of throwing out of first class compartment
    at St. Pietermaritzburg marked his tryst with destiny. He understood that despite
    have all the qualities of elites; he was not treated as one because he was
    black. He took a close look at the atrocities by the British on the Indians.
    From a semi-British he was transformed to a saint who was deeply religious but
    also secular. In South Africa he came in contact with several people from
    different religion and parts of world. The Bhagwat Gita, concept of jihad from
    Islam, works of Tolstoy, Aristotle, Thoreau, etc. inspired him and made me the
    flag bearer of Satya and Ahimsa. He developed the sense of community self-discipline
    and selfless service to humanity. Here he developed the Satyagrah movement
    which shook the British from its foundation. He understood that it was in India
    where he was needed the most. He was now a world citizen. These events changed
    him and it’s rightly quoted by Nelson Mandela, “You gave us Mohandas Gandhi; we
    returned him to you as Mahatma Gandhi”

  • suganyaNS

    Psychoanalyst Carl Jung’s explanation for [redetermined event occurring in someone’s life. “Synchronicity” of events that led to impact on transformation of life in that person. Here, we will see that event in the life of father of our nation.
    Five seminal ways of analyse the Gandhiji’s life in SA:
    1. We are articulate his understanding towards India and India’s freedom by reading his journals, articles in Hind Swaraj.
    2. Overcoming of spiritual thoughts in his life. The transformation was showing that he became deeply in Hindu into secular person and understanding of all the world’s religions.
    3. He accepted the truth and nonviolence to change the destiny of human race. Here, i witness two events:
    – In 1906, he discovered the Islam and concept of jihat that leads to the discovery of Satyagraha.
    – After his return to India he said, “I am a servant of truth, not a servant of India”. and he would disapprove if India deviated from the path of truth and nonviolence.Best eg is after the chauri chaura incident he withdrawn the Non cooperation movement.
    4. He observed the noble thoughts from foreign minds such as Socrates, Plato, Tolstoy, Martin Luther King, Nelson Mandela, Desmond Tutu and others. He realizes the racial discrimination by participating anti-apartheid struggle in SA.
    This noble thought made him leadership role in India’s Independence struggle and true-blooded citizenship.
    5. In SA, Gandhiji redefines himself for the improvement of the community discipline, women empowerment, health care and social justice, high standard of cleanliness and sanitation.

    plz review.

  • Ruby

    Please review…

    A few events which turned a young barrister to an
    ascetic Mahatma are as follows:

    He discovered Discussion and not division as the solution of problem while legally contesting the case of Dada Abdulla, the only reason why he went to South Africa. The case was settled by arbitration

    Racial Discrimination: When a poor Tamil labourer came to his
    office bleeding and when he narrated his story, Gandhiji solemnly resolved to fight against racial discrimination. He decided to stand by the poor indentured labourers, small traders etc who were racially abused and inhumanely treated by the majority South African authorities

    Community Participation To Achieve Purpose: When the Gvt authorities passed the inhuman bill like marriages which are not registered in
    South Africa will be illegal or those which did not allow the native Indians in
    South Africa to move without permit, Gandhiji decided to rope in the masses and prepare a collective front to fight the Govt. This was his start of experiment of non-coperation and civil disobedience movement

    Inexpensive and Ascetic Living: When he started a public office and rallied collective efforts to fight for the cause of Indians in South Africa, he graduallydeveloped the frugality and inexpensive means to support himself. This was more due to accountability to the public purse. Later he shifted to an Ashram in South Africa

    Deeply Religious: There were few Christian friends who tried to persuade him to adopt Chritianity and this led him to read more of religious books,
    including Hindu scriptures and his conviction developed to be a devout Hindu

    Ahimsa and Satyagraha: Deep conviction of his religious spiritual self.
    Sarvodaya: Was influenced by the Ruskin’s ‘Unto This Last’. Cleanliness: When he served in the plague struck areas, his conviction for personal and community cleanliness to prevent diseases strengthened.

  • romila

    Mohandas Gandhi’s image as an Indian spiritual and political leader who coordinated and led a successful national stuggle for independence against British rule on the strengths of non-violent movements survives largely intact.He returned to India from South Africa in 1915 and joined INC, radically transformed the Indian national movement by launching three popular campaign that eventually wore down the British government and ledto Indian independence. The factors and events responsible for transforming him from Mohandas gandhi to Mahatma gandhi are-
    a) Gandhi was thrown out of the train by railway officials just because a white man objected to his presence in the first class compartment and henced he faced discrimination directed at-all coloured people.
    b) At yet an another incidence he was beaten by a stagecoach driver when he refused to make room for an European passenger.
    c)He was barred from entering into several hotels.
    d) Lastly, he was ordered to eemove his turban by the Magistrate of Durban which he refused to do.
    Therefore, all these events proved to a turning point in his life which shaped his social activism and awareness about prevailing social injustices. Thus, after facing racism, prejudice and injustices against Indians in South Africa, he began to question his and his countrymen’s standing in the British empire which eventually turned him into Mahatma Gandhi who helped to free India with his universal policy of non-violence and truth.

  • Anit ifs

    The Gandhi who had left Britain for Indian shores was a confident young lawyer with a impelling beleif in the British system. He truly thought that the “benign depspotism” of the British was somehthing that the Indians needed. After being shunted out by his caste council and dejected by the treatment in India, he decided to take up a year long job in south africa.

    Gandhi was in for a shock. His carefully crafted image as a British Citizen, enjoying similiear if not equal rights as any white citizen was busted when the treatemne he received in Africa was that of pure contempt. The alter ego of a dandy British loyalist was shred and a new beginning was made as a crusader for truth.

    From organising strikes in favour of the poor labrourers, to organising a medical mission during the war; Gandhi had become a dynamic figure to which the downtrodden could look up to. His leadership was bolstered by the fact that there was no one except him to stand up to British Tyranny.

    His meetings with the leading intellectuals of the day and Christian missionaries led him to construct a syncreatic idealogy of “satyagrah” and the desire to seek truth in all spheres of his life.

    When he finally did land on Indian shores, he had already started a revolution, inspired countless others and through his simple, austere lifestyle made an inedible impact on the people of India. The Mahatama had been made an it was only a matter of time before the people of India realised that.

  • Roshan

    Mohan Das Karam Chand Gandhi landed South Africa as a barrier, intended to practice to earn money. Later he stayed there for more than two decades and this stay completely transformed him to return as a mahatma. Nelson Mandela correctly said in this context, “You gave us Mohandas Gandhi; we return him to you as Mahatma Gandhi”.

    Gandhi ji personally felt the discrimination of apartheid. It was the personally felt humiliation which gradually helped to develop an empathy for the natives of Africa. Later Gandhi ji learnt the new and innovative method to struggle against the state injustice in the form of Satyagrah. He discovered the power of fearless nonviolence and truth. This, he implied not only as a political tool but also as a divine way to uplift the human race.
    But the most important thing that completed the transition of Mahatma into a globally renowned persona was the success. It also gave a boost of confidence to Gandhi ji.

    Thus events and factors that occured in south Africa shaped the later course of Indian national movement and we were able to get the leadership of Mahatma.

    • Nice one but have to be conscious in using proper words proper way.

  • ThirdEye

    ” Be the change you wish to see in the world” – Mahatma Gandhi

    Mahatma Gandhi has shown the world how we could transform ourselves and work towards transformation of the world. His every deed was well thought and with constant learning from mistakes he became Mahatma. Mohandas Gandhi went to South Africa to deal with cases of Indian merchants who were working there.

    Gandhi faced racial discrimination when he was travelling in train after reaching South Africa to meet his clients. When he bought first class train ticket, he was forced to go in second class just because he was seen as black. It was entirely new to him whereas the immigrant Indians saw it as common phenomenon. Being a barrister from London he thought he would be respected for his rational thinking but treating him on part with other illiterate Indians made him think that the problem lay not in western education but somewhere i.e, racism.

    This led him to organize Indian masses who were working as merchants, businessmen, labourers, include tamils telugus etc who are of various religions Hindus, Muslims, Parsis, Christians, to form an Indian community and fight for their rights. He on their behalf fought along with educating them about the laws in South Africa and how to approach the court for justice. This made him closer to the poor and underprivileged society. Here for fighting them he experimented with Satyagraha(passive resistance) that became powerful weapon in later part of Indian national movement.

    Later he started Indian Opinion, journal that communicates the views of Indians. This helped him to understand the problems of humans in subtler form. Further to run Indian Opinion and to deal with problems of sections of Indian society when ran short of funds, he along with his friend kallenbach, started Tolstoy farm, which transformed his way of life. Influenced by the Tolstoy views, he learnt the simple way of living. He encouraged people to live in tolstoy farm, build their own houses, grow vegetables and other foods for sustainable and simple life. He felt his deep convictions reflected in Tolstoy’s writings and followed those simple ideals till the end of his life.

    Simplicity, Satyagraha, fighting injustice, supporting poor, discouraging racism etc are many things that made Mohandas Gandhi in later years Mahatma Gandhi and became beacon to the world.

    • Ridhu Shree

      Well connected, superb answer… 🙂

      • ThirdEye

        Thanks for reviewing..

  • Answer 2 From Mohandas to Mahatma.

    It was a process and not a single event that resulted in Mohandas becoming Mahatma.

    1. Cultural Influence: Exposure to injustice of the British Empire. His stay in England had
    introduced him to western society and rights based approach.

    2. Professional Influence: Training as a lawyer enabled him to anticipate the British
    responses. He was not a good orator before South Africa. But he polished his skills there.

    3. Religious influence: Religious thought, strong sense of morality instilled in him from
    childhood.

    4. Literary influence: to which he was introduced in SA the strongest of which was John
    Ruskin.

    5. Previous experiences in England that he had, like Opening a society for vegetarianism
    etc. This helped him in his organizational skills.

    6. Experiments: Like Phoenix settlement and Tolstoy Farm helped him test and refine his ideas about non-violence etc.

    7. Above all he gained a lot of experience in organizing civil resistance. He fought against the infamous Marriage Law, racial discrimination etc. He mastered the various dimensions of civil resistance like motivating people, publishing journals, financing and sustaining the movement. He mastered the art of eliminating the difference between the leader the led. These skills were of great use when he came to India. The charisma that he learnt to develop in South Africa, his ability to anticipate and direct the movement made him the Mahatma.

    • Ridhu Shree

      Its a good approach, everything is good, had if few events (in S.Africa) included, it would be the best… 🙂

  • prayas

    Discuss the events and other factors that transformed Mohandas Gandhi into Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa.

  • Legolas

    The evolution of Gandhi from Mohandas to a Mahatma happened in South Africa. What started off as a legal assignment to an Indian businessmen in South Africa, took him on a
    journey of self discovery and steeled him for his life’s mission.

    The South Africa struggle convinced Gandhi about the power of non-violent Satyagraha. He
    believed in it to make it his only weapon for all future struggles. It was in this background that he developed the completed strategy required to launch and carry forward such a non violent
    campaign and the ideological training required for the same.

    Working with the masses of Indians in South Africa helped Gandhi frame an understanding of the Indian populations. Before his South African experiences, Gandhi was one of those barristers who lived a high life. It was his experiences in Africa that gave him a better understanding of the impoverished Indian, with whom he could immediately empathize and connect with after his return to India.

    Gandhi’s exposure to many statesmen like Tolstoy, etc. imbibed the universal ideals of peace and humanity and see clearly the relevance of non violence and Satyagraha on a global stage.

    Lastly, Gandhi’s experiments with spirituality and religion; and his deep conviction in Hinduism also developed during his days in South Africa.

  • Lucky

    Before SA – just an ordinary barrister
    Events –
    1. Cases of marriages of Indians being declared invalid due to new law requiring compulsory registration
    2. Excessive force / Deception by British Administrators on issue of changes proposed in laws
    3. Racial slurs faced in Railways / Footpaths – He got thrown out and ambushed
    4. Visits to Jail – Gave him impetus to fight from jail itself
    Factors
    1. Deep belief in Indian values of Ahimsa, Bharamcharya and Bhaichara
    2. Slow “Learning by doing experiments” on non-violent protests, taking firm stands, sacrificing self interests for interest of Indian community
    3. Support from Indian leaders on visits to London
    After SA – He got confidence over his “Learning from experiments in SA” -> Increase conviction on his beliefs -> other influenced and followed him -> Mahatama