2) What do you understand by water scarcity? Critically discuss the problem of water scarcity in India and its causes.

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Topicchanges in critical geographical features (including waterbodies and ice-caps) and the effects of such changes. 

2) What do you understand by water scarcity? Critically discuss the problem of water scarcity in India and its causes. (200 Words)

The Hindu


  • Vibhu

    Water is one of the essential resource for life. Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. This may be due to both natural and human factors.
    Water Scarcity is many times due to human factors like inustrialisation, irrigation, domestic needs etc.
    India has a big problem with Water Scarcity and in many areas people dont get sufficient water for their basic needs.
    In India there are many areas which have lot of water due to the rivers flowing like northern planes , there are areas where there is a problem of water but
    not as a crisis like deccan plateau region and there are areas of rajashthan where there is a real scarcity of water.
    Causes of Water Scarcity:
    1) No Proper Planning
    2) Not proper linkages of rivers and canals
    3) lack of investment in many areas
    4) Misuse of ground water and due to which ground water level has gone down.
    5) Overuse for domestic purposes and irrigation
    6) Pollution , due to which there is a problem of clean water
    7) Climate Change
    Problems due to Water Scarcity:
    1) Health problems due to lack of drinking water
    2) Problems in irrigation due to lack of water, which impact the production
    3) Diseases due to unclean water
    4) Industrial demands of water not needed and which creates problem
    5) Drought like situation due to lack of water
    We need to work a lot in this area. We need to interlink most of the major rivers to solve the problem. We need to
    look of ways of water harvesting, we need to look at ways to stop misuse of ground water, we need to stop polluting our rivers.
    There is a need of very strict policy and its implemenation. Also, there is a need of social awareness.

    Please review.

    • Sanket Sudke

      @Vibhu You have put in lot of efforts but there are some flaws.

      You are allowed to write word limit +/- 10% (of word limit) in exam. Thus you can write 180 to 220 words. Its OK to write even below 180 words but not above 220. You have written 320 words. You may loose marks and also will not be able to attempt all the questions if you do so in mains.

      Water scarcity was defined excellently. Also you have tried to explain variations in water supply.

      However there were many redundant statements : –
      1. Water is one of the essential resource for life (Everybody knows)
      2. Water Scarcity is many times due to human factors like inustrialisation, irrigation, domestic needs etc. (You have explained causes twice)
      3. In India there are many areas which have lot of water due to the rivers flowing like northern planes (pollution mentioned twice)
      4. ‘Problems due to Water Scarcity ….’ (one or two lines at most as not asked directly in question)

      ‘We need to work a lot in this area. We need to interlink most of the major rivers to solve the problem. We need to look of ways of water harvesting, we need to look at ways to stop misuse of ground water, we need to stop polluting our rivers. There is a need of very strict policy and its implemenation. Also, there is a need of social awareness.’
      (65 words)
      –> You have written ‘we need to’ almost 5 times. A better way of representing the above data is: –

      Solution: –

      1. Interlink rivers.
      2. Stop misuse of ground water
      3. Stop pollution
      4. Strict policy and proper implementation.
      5. Increase social awareness.
      (23 words)

      • BooogaBoooga

        Good comprehensive review.

      • Tuks

        nice review…

      • Vibhu

        Thanks a lot Sanket for your valuable inputs. It will definitely help me in improving me a lot. Please keep reviewing . Happy New year Man:)

      • Lucky

        good review

      • shiv kr

        You have mentioned that +/- 10% of the word limit allowed….”you may lose marks”… I have been trying to know if such rules are there? Are u sure about what u have written Kindly tell me from where u got to know about these

        • Sanket Sudke

          Well its not mentioned anywhere on UPSC website but my seniors who had given interview told me so. Also I had joined a class and during test whenever my answer crossed the word limit by 10%(of word limit) the examiners used to cut my marks and mentioned the above 10% rule.

          UPSC has mentioned in instruction given in question paper(2014) that: –

          1. ‘Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to’

          –> My analysis is that if you cross word limit then you ‘may’ loose marks. But I think there must be some tolerance. Whether that tolerance is 10% or less may depend upon the person checking the paper.

          2. ‘Content of answer is more important than length’
          –> My analysis is that it is OK to write small answers. Hence I mentioned that ‘Its OK to write even below 180 words but not above 220’.

          I think it is better to create our own strategy with regards to word limit rather than follow the +/- 10% word limit.

          I feel it is better to have a habit of writing 5-10% below the word limit. That way we will ‘adhere to word limit’ and be safe. Also our answers will be long enough to cover most of the important points.

          Thanks for asking. You made me question my assumptions.

          • shiv kr

            thanks for taking the pain to write this much.What u have mentioned is very vital.People generally ‘try to’ but nobody becomes so particular about word limit(becoz they don’t know marks will get deducted)…atleast people who do self study.By the way where is that coaching located where they used to deduct your marks for exceeding word limit by 10%.If u can name the coaching instt.,name it If it is a Delhi based instt. then they might be knowing the exact thing regarding this.

            • Sanket Sudke

              Not in Delhi. It is in Pune, Maharashtra. I don’t think it will be a good idea to suggest the name of a coaching class on this forum as I would be accused of advertising. Also if you practice regularly on insights, i do not think that there is any need of joining any class.

              Anyway, whats the point of knowing more about the +/- 10% rule when it is better to dump it and adopt (and advocate) the safer strategy of writing 5 to 10% below the word limit and save time and maybe marks.

      • MIP

        Very useful..

    • Amol Ballal

      Nice attempt,
      You need to work on answer structure and understanding of question. At least here you should be aware about directives.
      Keep improving quality of answer…..))

      • Vibhu

        Happy New year Amol. Thanks for reviewing and providing me valuable comments. Please keep reviewing , it will help me in improving a lot. Thanks again.

  • kerala aspirant

    even though world comprise about 70 % of water resourcesIt is important to appreciate the fact that only 3 % of the world’s water is fresh and roughly one-third of it is inaccessible. The rest is very unevenly distributed and the available supplies are increasingly contaminated with wastes and pollution from industry, agriculture and households.

    water scarcity is in short .scarcity of water involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. due to both natural and human factors

    problems and its causes

    inefficient use of water for agriculture. India is among the top growers of agricultural produce in the world and therefore the consumption of water for irrigation is amongst the highest. Traditional techniques of irrigation causes maximum water loss due to evaporation, drainage, percolation, water conveyance, and excess use of groundwater

    2)Reduction in traditional water recharging areas. Rapid construction is ignoring traditional water bodies that have also acted as ground water recharging mechanism.

    3)Sewage and wastewater drainage into traditional water bodies.causing unaccesible

    4)Release of chemicals and effluents into rivers, streams and ponds. causing undrinkable

    5)Lack of on-time de-silting operations in large water bodies that can enhance water storage capacity during monsoon.

    6)Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry.

    • Tuks

      good answer……but conclusion is missing…
      Pls review my answer…

    • Amol Ballal

      Nice attempt
      Intro seems redundent points. Only defination is sufficient here in intro.
      You didnt write about problems arising discussion.
      Keep improving….
      Question demand
      1. Def
      2. Problems Discuss
      3. Causes
      4. Conclusion mindblowing solutions

      • kerala aspirant

        ya thnkz for the review..i will

  • BooogaBoooga

    Water scarcity is the lack of available water supply to meet human consumption in a particular region. Hydrologically, when the water supply falls below 1000 meter cube per person, an area is said to be water scarce.

    Water scarcity in India:

    1. Most areas, especially cities, are water scarce, even though there are geographical variations.
    2. Southen states, central India are most water scarce.
    3. But India has enough fresh water to meet its needs, esp. in Northern and eastern India. But the problem is the unequal distribution.and sporadic nature of monsoon

    1. Falling ground water tables due to aggressive use, as around 40% of India depends on ground water.
    2. Water leakages, esp in distribution.
    3. Overpopulated cities.
    4. Inefficient irrigation techniques and small land holdings for agriculture.

    Measure have been taken by the central govt., like the National Water Policy, 2013, declaring water as a economic good, the recently launched “Hamara Jal, Hamara jeevan” initiative. Human and technological interventions can ensure adequate water for all.

    • Tuks

      good answer….but I think you should add some points of Problems of water scarcity in India…..
      Pls review my answer…

      • BooogaBoooga

        Yes, some more would be handy, but i didnt have any more :/
        Thx 🙂

    • mk velu

      Review my answer too bro…I’m new to this site…

    • Jimboomba

      1000 m3 per person annually ryt..??

  • Narendra

    Lack of available clean water for drinking and other usage
    in an area. Water scarcity can be refers to the lack of onground water, underground
    water and no rain or acid rain in some area.

    In India there are lots of problem of water scarcity in some
    areas at the same time there are problems of flesh floods. The problems of
    water scarcity are

    Lack of adequate rain due to deforestation

    Depleting ground water level due to constant
    extraction of ground water

    Increasing rate of acid rain due to more co2
    content in the air

    Increasing pollution in the water bodies
    affecting the sources of fresh water

    India has lots of fresh water and there is need of proper
    management through awareness, education, community participation and integrated
    planning to combat the problems of water scarcity.

    Government and various NGOs are working vigorously to
    overcome the problems. Few initiatives are

    Ganga bachao andolan

    Hamara jal hamara jeevan

    Narmada bachao andolan

    Hiware bazar community participation etc

    There is still need of combined and planned strategy from
    the local level to central level. Public awareness and community participation
    is the most successful method to combat the situation at the same time working
    together of NGOs and Government is essential.

  • Maddy

    Water being the most essential resource for the well being of the nature and its components is facing scarcity due to the growing urbanization and other factors. Water scarcity in Human terms can be explained as where the demand of water is not met with the supply.

    The earth is comprised of only 3% of fresh water resources which is for human consumption. But most of these fresh water lies as groundwater, glaciers leaving less water percentage for humans consumption.

    Indian agriculture mostly depends on Monsoonal rains due to the depletion of ground water by pumping for the usage of industries, households etc. Any fail in the Monsoon badly affects the agriculture cycle and the most effected is the farmer and the common man.
    This in turn is resulting in the deaths of farmers due to crop failure
    On the other hand, the capital city is facing heavy scarcity of water due to the increase in usage due to heavy urbanization.

    Some Other factors are

    1) Less Practice in Purification of Used/ Sewage water
    2) Use of fertilizers and pesticides contaminating rivers due to the water runoff from these fields

    3) heavy pumping of ground water to industries
    4) No awareness in Water Harvesting Mechanisms.

    • Maddy

      Please Review friends

    • Tuks

      nice answer…..Maddy..you can write conclusion…..
      Pls review my answer…

  • Shiuli

    Shortage of water in a region due to natural or human factors, leading to a critical situation for the local flora and fauna, as well as for human habitations, is termed as water scarcity. Hydrologists have specified that when the per capita water supply in a region drops below 1000 m3, the region is said to experience water scarcity.

    In India the major factors responsible for water scarcity are increasing population, industrialization, expanding agriculture and rising standards of living. The per capita availability of water decreased from around 6000 m3 in 1947 to 1820 m3 in 2001, and is expected to further decrease to 1340 m3 by 2025, according to the mid-term-appraisal (MTA) of the 10th plan. Also, there are large disparities among various regions eg. between the NE and Rajasthan

    Water-borne disease like diarrhea and typhoid afflict a large number of Indians, specially the children. Scarcity of clean drinking water and for sanitation purposes are considered responsible. Also, being a major-grain producing country, agricultural water-requirements have been depleting the groundwater resources in regions where the monsoonal rains are deemed insufficient. Also, the growing requirement for water in industries as a coolant, cleaning, slurry transport etc has resulted in large-scale pollution and increasing pressure on the available resources.

    India’s water-scarcity problem can be addressed by changing water management techniques by effective legislation and raising awareness. Privatizing of water supply, as is being done for electricity supply, is an option. The $112 River Interlinking Project is a commendable proposition to reduce inter-regional disparities, but it requires strong political will from the leaders. Large-scale rain-water harvesting can also be adopted, considering that India receives plenty of rainfall.

    • HBK

      Overall good. But you crossed the word limit.

    • Tuks


    • mukesh

      hi Shiuli …it always a pleasure to read answers written by u .. whatever be the field of question.
      your answers seems to be very researched one . and sees to be quite perfect to me . can’t say about other’s taste.
      Can u guide us , what strategy you follow for writing them . i mean do you prepare a rough answer first and then refines it or in a one go write them. ??

      • Shiuli

        Hey Mukesh,
        Thank you for the kind words :).. Yes i do research a bit before writing my answers. This helps me later when I revise my answers as I don’t need to go through the sources again. A little time spent on individual questions saves me loads of time later on.
        I don’t make a rough draft. I write answers on the go. However, I do mentally develop a rough outline of the answer while reading the relevant articles and try to stick to the structure as much as possible.
        Hope this helps..

        • mukesh

          okk… it means you read in depth about the question related stuffs from online or offline materials and later consolidate them into your answer . gr8 way to get rid of multiple sources of info.

          how do you manage some researched info ( facts, figures or some opinions) which you feel is important but not quite fit in particular answer ?? .

          • Shiuli

            i prioritize in such situations.. i don’t need to know everything.. just more than my competitors.. 😉

            • Tarahumara

              hello shiuli
              your answer is nice
              one thing i want to mention : keep the use of data to the bare minimum, not because UPSC dosen’t want it but because by the end of your preparation you will be bogged down with a data overload.
              For the data which you used in the answer it can be simply written as (The per capita availability of water decreased by
              almost 70 % 1947 to 2001, and is expected to further decrease according to the
              mid-term-appraisal (MTA) of the 10th plan.)
              Trust me Exam hall me kuch data-vata yaad nahi ata.
              The examiner is more interested in your original thoughts than the data/facts you give.

    • DKT

      As expected to you , u wrote every thing required with In structure
      I have to face cut throat competition in mains like u people.
      motivate me !!!!

      • Shiuli

        lol dude mains is still 12 months away.. :)) practice everyday and you’ll get better

    • MIP

      Shiuli..good answer as usual..keep writing!!!

    • Shambhu


    • sree

      nice answer

  • h215

    Water scarcity is defined as the condition in which adequate levels of water are not available to meet the requirements. Water scarcity is one of the issues that affect the growth of nation. This problem is due to the combined effect of both natural and manmade causes. Man made causes involve the development activities like dam construction ,digging of wells which result in depletion of ground water. Over usage by industries also result in depletion of water. Even chemicals from the effluents of industries make the water pollutant as well. Climate change resulting in drying up of many water bodies is among the major natural causes of the depletion of water.
    It poses a great problem to nation’s growth as
    a) Demands of agriculture for proper irrigation are not met and thus affecting productivity and food security
    b) Drought conditions in various vulnerable areas worsen the situation.
    Though the government has initiated various programmes like National water mission under national action plan on climate change, integrated water management but the lack of implementation of these projects is the major issue. There is a need to address the issues of water resource planning at local level and to generate awareness for need of water conservation.

    Plz review

    • Tuks

      good attempt…..
      Pls review my answer….

  • ashwin kumar p

    Water scarcity is the deficiency of water in meeting the demands of a region. There is less than 1 percentage of fresh water available on earth and all regions are competing to extract fresh water. Hence it occupies an important place in millennium development goal – to half the population who do not have access to the drinking water. Scarcity of water is a relative concept and varies from region to region because few regions fail to provide water due
    to failure of the government and face scarcity. Few of them has the influence of the geographical area i.e. presence drought in the area or desert area. These areas spent lot of amount to purchase water meet the daily needs of life.

    Problems and causes of water scarcity –

    1. Majority of our population depends on agriculture and it requires huge amount of water. The methods of extraction of water is traditional which causes huge losses by evaporation and drainage percolation etc..

    2. Less concentration of the aquifers which are rechargeable and by concentrating on other areas leads to pollution and depletion of water.

    3. In cities there is a huge mix of drainage water with drinking water making it unusable hence scarcity surges.

    4. Release of chemical from the pharmaceutical industries polluting the underground water and as well by consuming the same leads to many water borne diseases.

    With the surging of the population the water demand is growing and have started building dams and canals which has ecological and environmental problems like fresh water fish species get endangered and threatened. This is happening because of the alteration natural
    lake and rivers. The construction of dams has effect on the irrigation system, where the flowing river gets diverted to irrigation.

    • Tuks

      good attempt….but I think Introduction should be short…..
      Pls review my answer…


    Water Scarcity is the situation wherein the amount of water supply or availability is inadequate to fulfill the demands of various sectors. Since, the supply of water is limited and there are increasing demands for various sectors for water, it leads to situation where the some or all the sectors are invariably affected with water insufficiency or water scarcity.

    India has large no. of rivers, ponds, lake and also a huge storage of ground water. Despite the presence of such a large number of sources of water, many regions of India suffer from the problem of water scarcity.

    Some regions of India are perennial water scarcity affected areas, while some are affected seasonally. The water scarcity may be due to altered supply of water or due to depletion of water resources. The chief causes of water scarcity in India are as follows:-

    1) Erratic monsoon- The predictability of the monsoon is very uncertain. 80% of the rainfall occurs in the four months from June to September.

    2.) Areal distribution of rainfall-Monsoon mainly affects the western coasts, eastern India and North-Eastern region and eastern costs. Rainshadow regions of western ghats and Norther India and North-western region are largely remain unaffected from the monsoon.

    3.) Growing of water intensive crops like rice.

    4.) Increased demand of water by the water intensive industries like iron and steel industry, Paper and pulp industry etc.

    5.) Inefficient use of water

    The problem of water scarcity can only be tackled by increasing the availability of water and efficient management of water resources. Water scarcity can be eliminated by matching the demand with by increased supply of water.

    Plz. review..

    • Tuks

      Pls review my answer…

  • Danish

    What do you understand by water scarcity? Critically discuss the problem of water scarcity in India and its causes. (200 Words)

    Water scarcity involves water stress, water shortage or deficits, and water crisis. This may be due to both natural and human factors , scarcity is more due to the human factor than anything – such as industrialization, irrigation, domestic use, etc.

    India is at doorstep of monstrous water crisis with scarcity of pure drinking water in arid and rocky desert lands. Also there is an acute shortage of the irrigation water , also it must be noted that 60% of the agriculture is rainfed and with water scarcity , it hugely affects the agriculture production in turn GDP. Water scarcity causes impure water to accumulate and also used for drinking purposes in places like Rajasthan etc. which causes severe health issues in water borne diseases.

    There can be several factors that culminates in water scarcity :-

    1) Climate change such as altered weather patterns including droughts or floods, increased pollution, and increased human demand and overuse of water .
    2) Pollution of the fresh water drinking sources like ponds , lakes , canals , rivers by opening sewage treatment plants effluents in the river. Also , human actions such as riverside defecation , bathing in the water bodies and animals being washed in the water bodies.
    3) Delay in the implementation of the river linking projects because interlinking of the rivers will cause the rivers canals to have water in all the summers as well , thereby reducing the drought risk conditions.

    But more serious and alarming concern is the scarcity of the pure drinking water in the villages and arid regions , which if not supplied will cause severe portable water crisis in India.

  • Sanket Sudke

    Water scarcity occurs when the institutional arrangement of water supply is not able to fully satisfy the demand for water of all sectors including environment .

    Water scarcity in India: –

    1. Variations: – Water scarcity more severe in

    a. Regional: – North West states of rajasthan, gujarat etc… ; rural areas; poor class are affected more severely.

    b. Class: – Poor class more affceted

    c. Rural areas face greater water scarcity than urban areas.

    2. Effect of rainfall: – Although regional with less rainfall face water scarcity, regions like Pondicherry and Mawsynram with highest rainfall in the world also face water scarcity.

    3. Causes: – Although natural causes like irregular monsoons do play an important role, man made causes like incorrect cropping pattern, lack of institutional arrangement for storing water supply, climate change, excessive focus on ensuring water supply to cities etc… also play an important role.

    4. Solutions: – Reducing wastage of water by creating awareness, stop subsiding water supply, creating storage facilities like bunds, small dams, water harvesting etc… adopting the ‘Ralegan Siddhi model’ will help many villages to avoid water scarcity.

    5. Government initiatives: – “Hamara Jal, Hamara Jeewan”

    • Tuks

      good answer….
      Pls review my answer…

  • pk

    Water scarcity

    It occurs when water is not available for fulfilling daily needs of all living things.

    Plant need water for photosynthesis which inturn releases oxygen vital for man and animal survival. Humans need water for multitudes of uses.

    Water is lifeline of human existence. It is an essential component of ecosystem. Its sufficent presence maintains ecological balance and bio-diversity.

    Water problem in India and its causes

    Though India is a land of numerous rivers and its tributaries but there are certain portions which are severly impacted by water crisis

    1. Norht Western portion of India is in severe water crisis due low rainfall, virtually non presence of any major river. It is majorly a desert area so groundwater resouces are very minimal.

    2. Central and Southern India – The rivers which mainly flow through these are not perennial. They are seasonal so sufficient water is not available.

    3. Crisis due to pollution: water sources like ponds, lakes and rivers are not destinations for industrial and sewage discharge leading water sources contaminated and non-usable.

    4. Crisis due to waste : Due to unawareness and illiteracy majority of population use water unwisely.

    5. crisis due to depleting groundwater resources: majority of groundwater is getting exhausted in irrigation. Groundwater levels are dipping every year which is leading to serious crisis.

  • vignesh

    water is a very important for human beings and other living organisms.water scarcity has taught us the importance of water and saving every drop of water
    Problems of water scarcity in India:
    1.Affects the agriculture output
    2.Farmer suicide due to failure in agriculture due to water scarcity. Ex Vidharbha Region
    3.Unrest between the states and people of two states Ex Tamil Nadu and Karnataka
    4.Economic imbalance in the country due to inconsistency in agriculture output.
    5.Drinking water problem across India
    Causes for water scarcity:
    1.Our country mostly depends on monsoonal rainfall,which is not a consistent one.
    2.Geographical structure of Deccan Plateau where water cannot penetrate easily.It makes storage of rain water a question mark.So no ground water.It makes Vidharbha farmers life difficult.
    3.Not having proper water sharing system between the states.
    4.lack of rainwater conservation by individual .Wastage of water by irresponsible citizens.
    5.Not maintaining ponds,lakes by government for conserving rain water.

    Solution for these problem is with us.Optimum Usage water ,proper water storage and sharing mechanism.
    Our Water resource minister ‘s recent initiative Hamara Jal Hamara Jeevan would be a great step forward.Instead of blaming Govt for everything ,we have to a responsible citizen by optimum utilization of water

    • vignesh

      plz review

    • Tuks

      nice answer….
      Pls review my answer…

      • vignesh

        thnks dude.

  • pr39048

    Water scarcity is the unavailability of the required amount of water for various purposes.India largely depends on the three months of monsoon to recharge it’s water sources which sustain for the complete year. As the rainfall in the monsoon is uncertain and unevenly distributed, there happens to be many areas which grapple with the water scarcity every year. As the economy is growing India’s water requirements are also increasing at a high rate. Water is required for drinking, irrigation, industries, power plants etc.

    Main causes which leads to the water scarcity are –
    1. Urbanization – Rapid urbanization and change in the life style of the urban people had led to the rapid increase in the per capita consumption of water, which lead to scarcity mostly in summer season. Rainwater harvesting is the most important solution to tackle this issue.
    2. Irrigation – There is a huge demand of water to increase the production of crops and also for multiple-cropping. Water intensive crops like sugarcane needs huge amount of water, this problem can be checked by implementing drip irrigation technique.
    3. Industrialization – As the economy in growing so do the industrialization which needs water for it’s functioning, putting pressure on the limited storage of water. Water management and recycling should help to check the water scarcity.
    4. Power plants – They are very water intensive and every year many power plants are being set-up as our energy is soaring. This adds pressure on the limited storage capacity. Emphasis on the renewable energy sources can check the crisis.

  • nks

    With a population of 1.2 billion according to the 2011 census, India
    has only 1,000 cubic meters of water per person, even using the higher
    estimate. A country is considered “water-stressed” if it has less than
    1,700 cubic meters per person per year.Clearly India is facing a water shortage. Although water scarcity is on account of both natural and human induced causes,primarily it is because of the latter one.Major causes of water scarcity in India are:-

    1.Ever increasing population:-which in turn reduces per capita availability of water.
    2.Over exploitation of groundwater:- This is because groundwater is an open-access resource and anyone can
    pump water under his or her own land.
    3.Insufficient and delayed investment in urban water-treatment facilities:-resulting in poor water quality.Water in the rivers has become unfit even for bathing.
    4.Inefficient usage:-in all kinds of usage-domestic,industrial and irrigational owing to huge amount of wastage.
    5.Unequal distribution of water resources:-peninsular regions under a greater stress.

    To tackle this problem, the central and state governments should empower local groups
    with knowledge, understanding, and real-time information on the status
    of groundwater so as to manage extraction in a cooperative way.Also India needs to promote watershed development along with educating people about the need for dams to store water.Interlinking of projects mooted by the govt too can solve the problem to an extent however should be done only with a proper analysis.

  • kalyani

    Water scarcity is the situation
    where the reserved level of water is not adequate enough for the consumption of
    people. Many parts of the world have scarcity of water. Then in countries there
    is acute shortage of pure drinking water. But they are overcoming it with
    de-salinization plants and other advanced technologies.

    In the case of India, many states have enough water to fulfil their needs. But it is like extreme situations. States where there is plenty of water is using those water in an unsustainable way. So uneven distribution of water is one of the main issues India dealt with.
    Then technology is developing and now water is not just using for domestic
    purposes. For atomic plants and all plenty of water is needed. Then for
    irrigation purposes, infrastructure development and all water is needed.

    Then in India there is no proper mechanism to re-use water. Unlike India in other countries, for irrigation, gardening and all they are using sewage water after proper
    re-cycling through water plants. Also people with more purchasing power don’t have
    any water scarcity and they are using it abundantly.

    So, proper awareness and more
    spending for water plants for the re-using of water is needed. Then only our
    future generation will be saved from the clutches of water scarcity.

    Some one please review

    • Tuks

      good attempt….

  • Tuks

    Pls review friends……..

    . Water is life because plants and animals cannot live without water. Water is needed to ensure food security, feed livestock, take up industrial production and to conserve the biodiversity and environment. Although, India is not a water poor country, but nowdays water is becoming a scarce commodity.

    What is mean by Water Scarcity?
    .Water scarcity is either a shortage of water or the lack of access to safe water.

    Causes of Water Scarcity in India:
    1. Imbalances between availability and demand because of population growth.
    2.Degradation of groundwater and surface water quality.
    3.Lack of on-time de-silting operations in large water bodies.
    4.Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between Rural and urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry.

    Problems of water scarcity:
    1.Water Conflicts:
    Severe water shortages have already led to a growing number of conflicts across the country.
    2.Increase in farmers’ suicide:
    Because of shortages of water many farmers unable to grow crops and provide food for their livestock. As a result lack of income and hence increase in farmers’ committing suicide.e.g. Marathwada region in Maharashtra
    3.Migration Problem :
    The drought conditions have pushed villagers to move to cities in search of jobs.
    4.Problem of Women:
    In many rural areas, women still have to walk a distance of some kms to reach up to the source of water.

    To solve the water scarcity problem in India,proper water conservation measures should be used. People should be made aware and trained on the techniques of water conservation. Also strict monitoring and implementation of laws by the government, NGOs and social activists is required.

    • ashwin kumar p

      Perfect answer Tucks.

      • Tuks

        thnks a lot…..

    • BooogaBoooga

      1. Since your word count is more, i think you can remove the first para.
      2. Great points for causes.
      3. Great points for causes.

      I think i messed up my answer.

      • Tuks

        thnks a lot……for reviwing the answer…..such comments are really motivating….

        • fiza

          good, keep writing…..

          • Tuks

            thnks….fiza….for reviewing answer…..


        Nice answer…… I think u should also add example of the water conservation measure taken by tamilnadu government..

    • h215

      Nice points…. Good attempt.. Keep writing..

      • Tuks

        thnks…..for reviewing the answer….

    • vignesh

      good answer…i feel intro can be reduced. problem and then causes would be much better…but good one..

      • Tuks

        thnks….vignesh…for reviewing answer…..
        I will consider your suggestion…

    • kerala aspirant

      ya intro can be avoidable…avoid like questioning (what is water scarcity? )…..nicely concluded..

      • Tuks

        kerala aspirant..thnks for reviewing the answer…..

        I will improve it…

    • Maddy

      Hi Tucks,

      I can see that you have reviewed almost everyone’s answer. I really thank you for that and for your nice comments.

      Your answer is good but can u pls explain some conservative measures elaborately. I think that will score more marks for us.


      • Tuks

        Maddy….thnks a lot….
        Because of word limit…..Conservative measures are not elaborated…..

    • imks

      Nice answer:)

      • Tuks

        imks……thnks….for reviewing the answer….

    • Very nice content. Try to mention kaveri water dispute or such in that particular point. First line of your answer is unnecessary. Dont use such line.

      • Tuks

        samiran…..thnks a lot for reviewing the answer and for your valuable suggestion…..I will consider it……

    • mk velu

      Review my answer too bro..

      • Tuks

        ya…..I will review…..

  • Pranav Chavan

    A water crisis is a situation where the available potable, unpolluted water within a region is less than that region’s demand.Even though 71% earth surface is covered with a water why crisis arise ? the basic reasons are as mentioned below :
    Water scarcity is being driven by two converging phenomena
    1. growing freshwater use
    2. depletion of usable freshwater resources.
    Water is a basic element of human life. There is hardly any aspect of life who can survive without water.Production,manufacturing, electricity generation consume great amount of water. The waste water which come out of above these is not at all human usable its full on fatal elements and such a water left in to river , bay , ocean or on any waste land which again ultimately polluted available underground water.
    Use of water is directly proportional to Pollution, Development activities of country.We are totally depended on monsoon for water which is unpredictable and available natural resources of water are getting polluted due to man made activities . Due to all this country facing serious problem of water crisis.
    To counter such situation government need to aware peoples up to grass root level , promote “Save tree” campaigns.There should be harsh action on violating environmental norms by companies , need to strict rules and regulations related to outlet water processing and their composition.

    Happy new year to all…. 🙂 🙂 🙂

    • Tuks

      Happy new year……..
      good answer……But I think you should modify your structure…..You write causes-problem and again causes….
      Pls review my answer….

  • Wilson

    The importance of water can be known from the very popular ‘Water is life’ among us. Eventhoguh Earth has almost 2/3rd of water but the fresh water which is for our use is very less proportion of it and distributed unevenly.
    In crude terms, Water scarcity involves the phenomena of water stress, water shortage and deficits and water crisis. It is a relative concept and can occur at any level of demand and supply where demand exceeds the supply. Dut to the growing population, water use has been increasing.
    Water scarcity can be man-made or natural.The reasons for water scarcity are:
    wasted, polluted and unsustainable managed.
    As in our country there is enough rain but they are wasted to sea and in fact only 30 % of conservation of wasted water is sufficient to meet our demand even in 2050 according to national waterways.
    We have large perennial rivers such as Ganga but have been polluted so much that it is of less use.
    The water used in factories are not treated and make its use unsustainable. The painting, chemicals and textile industry use large amount of water but they pollute the river with their untreated waters.
    However we have physical as well as economic water scarcity which impacts poor, farmers in many regions. At many places aquifers with arsenic, lead and mercury has been found. Government has provided with finance but it has not been implemented full to purify water from hazardous chemical. We need to harvest rain water to such places.
    Hence the problem of water scarcity can be solved if it is managed well and awarenss among people about its use will be done. The government needs to adopt strict measures to provide relief to people from it.

  • mk velu

    Water plays a significant role for existence of life.the consumption of deficit amount of water instead of equlilbrium amount their exist the phenomenon of water scarcity.since water scarcity is a burning issue in india.The main reason in water scarcity in india are
    1.Unprecedented population growth and urbanization.
    2.Dysfunctionality in water management .
    3.Dwindling groundwater supply.
    4.Open defacation prevalent in rural and slum areas.
    5.Non efficacy in cleaing of rivers,streams,pond etc.,for instance,The cleaning of the river Ganga,wherre The Ganga Action plan wsa initiated in 1984.but,still the river ganga is dirty.
    6.Using traditional methods in irrigation by farmers,which cause huge water loss.
    7.Leakage of water in the distribution network in urban areas.

    • Tuks

      mk velu……good attempt….but you should also add Problems of water scarcity and conclusion(including solutions to the water scarcity problem)….

      • mk velu

        thanks for ur review bro..keep in touch

    • Amol Ballal

      Nice attempt, Dont feel ashamed of harsh criticism. It happens initially. Keep doing religiously and deligently.
      You need to work on structure of answer. Definaition was somewhat ambiguise. Problem arises out of it not there.
      Keep it up….))

      • mk velu

        Thank U …..Amol Ballal…..keep reviewing my answer…. it helps me a lot to overcome mistakes…

  • fiza

    the lack of sufficient available of water resource to meet the demand of water within a region is called water scarcity. it involve water stress, water shortage, water crisis .
    problem of water scarcity in india :
    1. physical scarcity : most common in arid & semi arid ares where water rainfall is low & river flow fluctuates.
    2. economic factor : imposing water tariff charging for extracting water, offering conservation subsidies for water use restriction.
    3. human factor : depletion- increase human use competing agriculture, industry, etc.
    waste & misuse- 60-75%of water used in irrigation is lost through leakage evaporation.
    in urban areas- water is use for ornamental purpose ex.-fountain
    4. environmental factor ; location- ares with low rainfall
    low ground water supplies
    few lakes or river
    5. pollution: many people to gain access clean water result in use of water polluted by chemical.
    6. societal : especially in slum area water is difficult to access due to non exiting household connection.
    -inefficient use of water for agriculture. india is among top grower of agriculture producer in the world.
    -lack of efficient water management & distribution of water between the consumer.

    its causes:-
    no proper planning
    not proper linkages of river & canel
    over use of domestic purpose
    misuse of groundwater

    to over come this govt. is going to start “hamara jal hamara jeevan” by union ministry of water resource. in adding to this our responsibilty is to efficient use of water our motive is to donate water.
    plz review…

    • Tuks

      good answer….fiza….
      Pls review my answer….

  • imks

    Water scarcity symbolizes shortage of sufficient & proper water supply to meet the demands of water within a region. Simply put, it is either the lack of enough water (quantity) or lack of access to safe water (quality).

    Water touches every aspect of life, and in India uncertainty over access to and the availability of this basic resource is reaching crisis levels, thus producing serious problems.

    • Unavailability of safe and clean drinking water. About 97 million Indians lack access to safe water today.

    • Rise in communicable diseases, related to unsafe water.

    • Insufficient water per person for daily usage.

    • Lack of water supply for irrigation facilities, decelerating agricultural growth.

    • Restricted economic growth as agriculture gets effected which is the backbone of India’s economy.

    India’s water crisis is deep rooted in these causes.

    • Population explosion has increased demand for water which is a limited resource.

    • Tapering off groundwater supplies from over extraction & wastages mainly by farmers

    • Poor water treatment facilities at all levels mainly due to insufficient investment.

    • Water pollution due to urbanization & industrialization.

    Active roles of the governments at all level along with people from all spheres of life in addressing this issue are critical for ensuring the water storage and distribution needed to create awareness & to sustain India’s growth trajectory.

    Plz review.

    • Tuks

      nice answer…..
      Pls review my answer….

      • imks


  • CA Vikram Dheerwas

    Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to
    meet the demands the water usage within a region. Water scarcity involves water
    stress, water shortage or deficits, and water
    crisis. Water scarcity can be a result of two mechanisms: physical (absolute) water scarcity and economic water scarcity. India also facing problem with Water Scarcity and in many areas people don’t get sufficient water for their basic needs. There are many causes including both natural and human factors. There are many causes such as –

    1. Inefficient use of water for agriculture.

    2. Reduction in traditional water recharging areas due to rapid construction.

    3. Sewage and waste water drainage into traditional water bodies.

    4. Release of chemicals and effluents into rivers, streams and ponds.

    5. Lack of efficient water management and distribution of water between urban consumers, the agriculture sector and industry.

    6. No proper utilization of water during monsoon such as on site water harvesting.

    We need to take this issue seriously and have to involve everyone in initiative to save water such as NGO, Students , engineers, water consuming communities. Government need to make more investment in water saving policies and also start awareness campaign like “ Hamara Jal, Hamara Jeewan” to save water. Government also need to take strict action against those industries which dumping chemicals in water bodies.


    Water Scarcity maybe put across as either lack of water or
    lack of access to safe and potable water.

    In India the concerns surrounding the water scarcity are
    manifold of which the following are most significant :

    Contamination: In tune with stress on other places with fresh water resources . For example :Certain districts of West Bengal have reported arsenic contamination causing in turn displacement to other areas and stressing the levels of available water.

    Water related diseases :Typhoid , cholera , diphtheria and diarrhea are caused by microbes settling and mutating in water bodies this multiplies and extends to freshresources as well. Therefore treastment of waste water and settled water is utmost important to prevent further contamination as in the case of the river Ganga that is now getting contaminated at lengths and depths away from the banks by transition of water.

    Grain oriented country :Rice , sugarcane , pulses , millets are in the veins of INdiands both as consumers and producers but they need adequate water and uninvolved or unabated water use leads to stress for per capita usage in the rural areas surrounding the farm fields.

    The stated crisis are all attributed to state negligence of planning and citizen oriented wastage , therefore awareness and insight into the deep rooted and fast approaching crisis is essential to support socio –politco-eco balance.


    Friends please review.

  • Chhavi

    Scarcity of water is assesed by looking into the water-population equation. An area is said to experiences water scarcity if annual water supply falls below 1000 m3 per person.
    Water scarcity is global problem having both human and natural causes.
    Like most other parts of the world, India too faces problem of water scarcity.
    The causes are:
    1) population growth followed by increased water consumption.
    India adds nearly 16 million people every year but its water resources remain constant so water scarcity is bound to occur.
    2) over exploitation of ground water
    Farmers often resort to excessive pumping of ground water as govt. promises free electricity as a populist measures.
    growing water intensive crops in dry areas such as sugarcane in Maharashtra.
    So rate of pumping/use of ground water exceeds rate of recharge of aquifers.
    3) Inability to share interstate river waters.
    water being a state subject so we have no proper institutional framework to share interstate river waters leading to disputes between states.
    no infrastructure to divert surplus water from one region to water deficit region
    4) water pollution:
    discharge of municipal and industrial wastes into rivers.
    washing off of fertilizers from farm lands into water bodies.
    5) growing urbanization & industrialization:
    urbanization has raised living standards of people and growing no. of industries demand more water.
    6) natural causes:
    global warming causes drying up of many minor rivulets and streams, ponds.
    deforestation reduces rainfall.

    1) adversely affect agriculture and hence our food security.
    2) increased no. of social conflicts between have and have nots
    3) unavailability of potable will lead to heath risks
    4) conflict between industrial and agricultural sector which will hamper growth and stability

    make rain water harvesting in urban areas mandatory.
    educate farmers regarding good irrigation practices and farming practices.
    use advanced methods of irrigation such as drip irrigation
    penalize industries contaminating water.
    go ahead with inter-linking of rivers may be partially
    afforestation to combat global warming and reducing rainfall.

  • kamal

    The mismanaged situation which fails to meet the needs of
    water for domestic and industrial use is known as water scarcity. It is both
    manmade and natural problem, but nature’s role is limited upto uneven
    distribution but humans are responsible for wastage and pollution of water
    without recognizing its economic and life sustaining value.

    In india there is low consciousness about water scarcity and
    it affecting regularly livelihood, food security and sustainable development.
    Following reasons are behind problem:

    Rapid industrial growth leads to setup of water guzzling
    industries like leather, beverages and golf courses. Changing lifestyle
    directly responsible for such development.

    On management side unplanned urbanization and age old
    sewerage systems of our country increases water wastage manifold and leaves
    very bleak chances for water treatment, instead it further deplete waters in
    rivers and canals.

    Indian agriculture without progressive scientific and
    technological help depends on heavy irrigation and quintals of pesticides and
    fertilizers which not only empties ground water but also affects its

    Climate change results in drying of ponds and wells. In
    southern parts of country rise of sea level results in inundation and salinity
    of surface water and ground water.

    At domestic level people are unaware of efficient and
    effective use of water. As a result northern parts face water shortage in every

    Thus, efforts should be made in every field to save water
    because it is synonymous to life.

  • ThirdEye

    Planet earth has around 70% of water . But the quantity of water that is available for purposes of drinking, for agricultural purposes, domestic usage like bathing, cleaning, washing etc is less. This is termed as water scarcity. India has major water resources like rivers, lakes, ponds, underground water which will serve for the various purposes of human activity.

    Water scarcity problem is prevalent due to many reasons.

    1. Increase in population. This is major factor that increased pressure on water resources.

    2. Polluting water resources due to release of industrial effluents into major sources of water like rivers.

    3. Excess usage of water in areas of availabiility of water. Less availability of water resources in some parts like Rajasthan.

    4. Due to geographical factors like hilly terrain, islands etc water scarcity is present.

    Water scarcity causing many problems like poverty, under development, deaths etc. Many viable options are in use for dealing with water scarcity like Desalination of ocean water in areasa of coastal areas, regulated usage of water, preventing pollution of water through laws and vigilance, using technology for lift irrigation in agriculture etc.

    Along with these public awareness about the water scarcity in all parts of the country, organizing campaigns for reducing pollution etc would help in using the available water resources efficiently in India.

    • Akhand

      Answer written is as expected by examiner , But i observed some points
      1 Intro 70% water is bit clique [ Sorry :)]gives very generalistic view [ However IAs = generalistic as most say]
      2 You generalised rajasthan as water scarce , Infact now there are flash floods in rajasthan ,and very often water logging issue due to increased water flow , change in crop requiring high water . Indira gandhi canal besides some positives has created problem of high salinity in many areas

      3 Desalination coastal areas you have metioned – However You could have written LTTD technology and norways + canada interest in Water business in India
      All views are personnel and Personally A very happy new year man 🙂

      • ThirdEye

        Thanks buddy for the review. yeah I accept it is more generalistic..not in particular to this ans, but I am writing answers without referring to sources or concrete facts, and that could be the reason(recollecting, structuring etc)..But your points are noted.
        I think i should dig little more factual things to give comprehensive view to answers hopefully after sometime i think ill be able to write that way.
        And Wish you too, HNY 2015, may all your wishes come true…keep writing, keep reviewing…!!

  • Akhand

    Scarcity or Deficit of water is due to demand supply mismatch and this deficit will continue to grow, if suitable action plan of Sustainable development not taken
    ~81% of Water is used in Agriculture and rest 19% in domestic industrial .
    1. Agriculture= methods are old , traditional ,as well as drift to high water requiring commercial agriculture . Shift in the crop pattern is also one of the reasons . Micro irrigation and drip,sprinklers irrigation and Israel technology is not adopted. Deep bore well has not only depleted the water table but also alkalinity soils and added fluorides. Agro forestry and social forestry in many parts are lacking . Eutrophication due to NPK fertilisers also Increasing BOD and decreasing DO
    2 Industry – Water is not treated by either of primary ,Secondary ,and tertiary methods distressing the water table. Regulation on tanneries and sugar mills is not enforced and depleting and encroaching wetlands are further issues
    3Domestic- Except TN , no state has legislation for rain water harvesting compulsory .Though Wb has now provision in place for now has Provisions for new buildings. Community awareness is necessary for the water conservation
    Moreover Political issue regarding Inter state river linking and inter state water dispute shall be done away in order to fast track the conservation . Encroachment on wetland and Mangroves have already shown the their deleterious effects in flash floods and Deluge. Hence “movement of water shall be made Water movement”

    • Amol Ballal

      @Akhand :disqus
      Nice answer point written under agriculture specially nice studied. I noted down specifically. As far answer is concern you have good points but structure and question understanding is missing. You can see my answer. What exactly I wanted to say you can understand. If seems anything wrong point out it.

      • Akhand

        Yes !! i HAd i saw you structure before writing , i would have copied
        Your structure is Nice. I will take care and use this same in similar ques and , You should have elaborated some points as you had credit of some 60-70 words left in you answer . Apart from it , its really nice

  • Amol Ballal

    Question demand
    1. Def
    2. Problems Discuss
    3. Causes
    4. Conclusion mindblowing solutions

    Water scarsity means mismatch in required and available usable safe and accessible water resource. It comprises water stress, shortage and crisis….

    Problems-Public Health, agricultural loss, less production, manufacturig loss, industries shift, migration, underdevelopment, women health and exploitation,……

    Causes-Geographical reasons, overexploitation, contamination due to industrial effluents and agri, international issues, subsidized/free electricity to farmers, rapid urbanization, urban area exploit undescriminately, Industrial use.

    Conclusion-high population, unbalanced distribution of resources and population demand some inovative idea like river interlinking and political and administrtive interference in water management.

    • mk velu

      Review my answer bro,,,

  • Abhishek V

    Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. When the per capita water supply in a region is below 1000m3, the region is said to be water scarce.

    In India, water scarcity can be understood best by looking at sources and consumption.


    Surface water: River, lake etc. Water of southern rivers like Krishna, Godaveri etc is harnessed efficiently while same is not the case for larger rivers like ganga and bramhaputra in north. Steps should be taken in this direction and that water can be supplied to water scarce such as Rajasthan, Deccan region etc.

    Groundwater: States like Punjab, Haryana etc have high ground water utilisation while Chattisgarh, Odisha utilise only a small proportion of their groundwater resource. Better infrastructure for groundwater utilisation will be helpful in solving water problems of these states.

    Lagoons and backwaters, sea water: With long coastline, areas near the sea have lagoons however cost of desalination of sea water is presently very high to be economically feasible.

    Precipitation: Large part of India depend upon monsoon and agriculture is adversely affected with delay or failure of monsoon. Use of undergroundwater and canals will be good for such areas.


    Agriculture: India traditionally being agrarian economy, largest part of consumption constitute irrigation facilites. Its requirement can be met to great extent by above mentioned steps.

    Domestic: water supply of clean water for drinking and other domestic use continues to be a grave issue. There is need to spread awareness about importance and techniques for water cleaning. Besides, watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse should be encouraged.

    Please review

    • Amol Ballal

      @Abhishek V:disqus
      Nice attempt
      You have not answer to the question been asked. By the way points are nice.
      See my answer structure with question described there.
      Keep improving….))

      • Abhishek V

        question is too long to be answered in 200 words… in such small window problems can be best understood by explaining the availability versus requirment only… as for the solution, they are immediately suggested after the discussed source.

        As for example, the format you have suggested is alone nearing 100 words, how can they be discussed within 200 words? so had to drop that approach entirely

      • Empath

        hey @amolballal:disqus , plz review my answer ,I need honest feedbacks as I am a newbie here

  • Ankit

    Water scarcity orrcurs when supply from available water resources cannot meet the demand for water for drinking, sanitation and other industrial uses. The causes of scarcity may be
    a) Physical: When there are not enough water resources available to meet demands
    b) Economic: Due to lack of investement in infrastructure to extract water out of the water resources even when enough water resources are available.

    India is facing a major water crisis. This is due to the following causes:
    – Population increase: The demand for water has increased, but the supply has not been able to keep pace. Water resources have shrunk due to unsustainale proctices like over drawing water from well, lakes and aquifiers.
    – Urbanization: Many areas in cities do not have adequate provision for water. This has lead to a health crisis with spread of diseases like diarrhea and malaria. Slums which typically house the poor and migrants do not have proper water supply.The poorer section of the society are affected more from these
    – Excessive use of water in agriculture – Cheap availability of water for irrigation has lead to it’s ineffcient use causing salinity and nutrient deposits in areas like Punjab.
    – Pollution: Cities and industries have polluted all the rivers in India. Waste water is often discharged without treatment by industries and civic bodies into rivers. There is hardly any marine life left in the downstream regions.
    – Climate Change: Climate change has altered rainfall patterns and thus the availability of river and ground water in India. This has created uncretainity in the lives of farmers and people in water deficient regions in central and western India.

    Reducing water scarcity by half is part of the MIllenium Development goals. India may very well achieve this goal but even the half is a huge number in India.

  • Madhu Babu

    Water scarcity is phenomenon
    when water availability is not there ie supply of water is not meeting the
    demand in particular area. major reasons for this problem are

    1. Deficit in monsoon: most of the Indian rivers are perennial depending
    on rain fall at catchment areas. These rivers are becoming dry during summer
    season or deficit in rain fall during monsoon reasons. people are facing
    problem of getting even for drinking. interlinking of rivers will flow water
    from excess water areas to deficit areas

    2. Irrigation: 80% of the dam waters are used for irrigation of crops
    . more R&D should carried out for less water crops and farmers should be
    educated to shift to those for effective utilization of water.

    3. ground water: over utilization of ground water using pumps led to
    salinization of water and becoming un usable;

    Hence water harvesting, interlinking
    of rivers and bringing laws on ground water utilization will help to fight long
    term problems in water. Govt should immediately focus on this otherwise due to
    climate change and changing weather phenomenon we may face problem in drinking
    water in all the areas.

    Pls review

  • shruthi

    World comprises 70% of water resources. In which only 3% of water is fresh. But most of the fresh water lies as ground water, glaciers.So this leads to a problem of water scarcity. Water scarcity refers to the insufficient available water resources to meet the demands .Water is one of the most essential resources required for human survival.So , if the water scarcity prevails it leads to so much of problems even to death.

    Causes that leads to water scarcity:
    1) No proper implementation of Government programmes as well as rain water harvesting method.
    2) Lack in implementation process.
    3) Lack of awareness among people.
    4) Excessive use of ground water.
    5) Global warming .
    6) Draining of wastes into the water resources.
    7) Wastage of water in domestic chores.

    Problems associated with water scarcity:
    1) India is a agricultural based country. Since most of the population depends upon agriculture, excessive use of ground water leads to water scarcity.Drip irrigation can be followed to reduce the excessive use of water.
    2)Most of the wastes from industries are dumped into the water resources,which leads to pollution.It make the water unfit to drink as well as water-borne disease like diarrhoea, chlorea.Chemical affluents also cause water organisms die . Recently, the oil spill in Sunderbans, affected the live of organisms in Mangrove forest. So technology should be used to avoid the dumping of waste from industries.
    3) Urbanisation leads to over usage as well as wastage of water.There should be awareness among people about the water scarcity and its consequences.
    4)Leads to conflict between the states.

    • Ravi Malik

      Other Cause: Monsoon pattern
      Irrigation (although u have mentioned the same in Problem associated)
      High use in particular industries (again u touched this point in Problem associated)
      Increase in population with respect to availability of water.

      There should be 1-2 lines regarding solution/conclusion.

      Rating: 7/10.

      • Empath

        hey @Ravi Malik:disqus , review my answer too ..

      • shruthi

        Thanks for ur review frnd . Surely I will rectify it

  • shruthi

    Plz review my answer.Iam a beginner. I need ur guidance so that I can rectify my mistakes.

  • Empath

    Water scarcity is
    the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands
    of water usage within a region. It involves water stress, water
    shortage and water crisis.
    Natural as well as Human factors have been responsible for causing the problem of water scarcity in India.
    Natural Factors:-
    – climate change,such as altered weather conditions leading to droughts or floods.
    – absence of natural water resources in some regions,make them totally dependent on rainfall.
    -drop in the level of ground water table in many regions,due to the absence of trees.
    Human Factors:-
    – over exploitation of ground water by industrial,agricultural and domestic usage.
    – concretisation in empty spaces in most of the urban areas makes it difficult for the
    ground water to get recharged.
    – pollution of the water resources due to industrial and agricultural effluents.
    – deforestation for residential or industrial activities.
    – increase in population led to the increase in demand for water usage.

    Problems due to water scarcity-
    – loss in biodiversity.
    -loss in agricultural productivity.
    -deterioration of environment and human health.

    Survival of living beings would be impossible without water. Government as well as
    citizens should take steps to conserve this precious commodity.Government should regulate the use of ground water, creation of new tubewells should not be allowed without prior permission. Plantation of trees , awareness of the need for water conservation and the recent initiative like “Hamara Jal , Hamara Jeeven” by union
    water resource ministry, should be encouraged and adopted in every district of India.

  • shankar

    Existence of water is the emodiment of existence of life, its scarcity is the embodiment of absence of life.ex Thar desert, Sahara region
    Water Scarcity
    -The inadequate quantity of availble water to meet the minimum basic requirement of a community, a locality, a district in particular and a state and country in general.
    causes of water scarcity in India
    Population growth;
    -Increase in water demand for drinking, bathing, cooking, sanitation and gardening.
    -over utilization of ground water for irrigating crops, 70% of the total water utility for irrigation.
    -unscientific use of water
    Expansion of business of activity
    -ranging from industrialisation to services sectors such as tourism and entertainment etc
    -heavy industries such as coal, steel, and oil and refinery.
    Climate change
    -irregular and invariable rainfall in different part of the world.
    -over-evaporation of surface water
    Raid urbanisation
    – opening of tap in urban areas
    -the accelerating urbanisation make small well and septic-tank inadequate to meet the high-density population of the city.
    -inadquate and unscientific management of water resources
    -lack of rain-water harvesting system.
    pollution of water resources
    -due to industrial disposal.
    -household wastes into water
    -chemicals flow into river.
    Problem of water India such as;
    -crops failure
    – Inavailability of water in agriculture, causing low agriculture productivity.
    -food insecurity thus leads to poverty; malnuitrition and inefficient workforce causing hindrance for the growth of India.
    -lack of drinking water, for washing, for sanitation and gardening.
    -loss of biodiversity, flora and fauna.
    -Impediment for the Industrialisation leads to job insecurity causing the deterioration of already existing low standard of living
    -cattle rearing is hampered by the scarce of water.
    Thus this is the grave situation which must be taken utmost importance and the issue must be addressed at earliest.
    plz rvw frnds

  • rohan yadav

    Water is a basic resource. Water scarcity can be defined as a condition in which people lack sufficient water or else do not have access to safe water supplies. Water Shortage is a topic which is not restricted to India alone but its a global issue now.

    The problem of water scarcity can be well concluded from 3 major facts:-

    1) government’s own data revealing that residents in 22 out of 32 major cities in india have to deal with daily shortages.

    2) In 1951, the per capita water availability was about 5177 m3. This has now reduced drastically to about 1545m3 in 2011.

    3) The World Health Organization estimates that 97 million Indians lack access to safe water today, second only to China, 21% of communicable diseases in India are related to unsafe water.


    1) insufficient water per person as a result of population growth.

    2)Unchecked deforestation and unsustainable irrigation practices
    3) poor water quality resulting from insufficient and delayed investment in urban water-treatment facilities.Water in most rivers in India is largely not fit for drinking, and in many stretches not even fit for bathing.
    4) dwindling groundwater supplies due to over-extraction by farmers, Builders and industries. This is because groundwater is an open-access resource and anyone can pump water from under his or her own land.


    1) Mandatory tree plantations.
    2) Making Rainwater Harvesting compulsory for all the buildings.
    3)setting up plants to recycle water across all the cities of the country.
    4) central and state governments should empower local groups with knowledge, understanding, and real-time information on the status of groundwater so as to manage extraction in a cooperative way.
    5)the government should strengthen state pollution control boards to enforce effluent standards. The technical and human resources currently available to the boards are inadequate to effectively monitor activities, enforce regulations, and convict violators.

    6)a rational water pricing policy impacting uncontrolled wastage of water.

    7) water free urinals at least in cities.

    water scarcity have brought in a whole lot of health, sanitation and social conflicts around the country. India’s twelfth five-year plan (2012–17) has focused attention on all of these issues discussed. The plan puts great emphasis on aquifer mapping, watershed development, involvement of NGOs, and efficiency in developing irrigation capacity. Because water is a state subject in the federal constitution, state governments are expected to play a large role in these efforts.A UN report suggests the possibility of a near “water war” around the globe. Countries like china have already sensed the issue and have began flexing muscles in by construction of reservoirs and dams on brahmaputra river mouth.Its High time for india.

    • ajeet singh

      My friend, question has not demanded the solution.

  • rohan yadav


  • rohan yadav

    PLZ REVIEW GUYS…………………..

  • serenity

    Water scarcity is the long-term imbalance between available water resources and demands.India faces a major scarcity of water as we move into the 21st century.This scarcity threatens the basic right to drinking water of our citizens,it also puts the livelihoods of millions at risk.Water tables are falling and water quality issues have increasingly come to the fore.

    The problem and cause of water scarcity

    1)In India water scenario is fast changing as a result of population growth,rapid urbanization,industrialization,electricity generation,impact of global warming and erratic rainfall.

    2)India is not a water deficit country but due to severe neglect and lack of monitoring of water resources development projects ,several
    regions in the country experience water stress from time to time.

    3)India is,by far ,the largest and fastest growing consumer of groundwater in the world but groundwater is being exploited beyond
    sustainable levels,lack of dependable source of drinking water and hazardous chemicals in the aquifers of groundwater are some of the water related problems face by the people.

    4)lack of convergence with sanitation compromises water quality.

    5) Under the Indian constitution, water is primarily a state subject but it is
    an increasingly important national concern in the context of the right to water being a part of the fundamental right to life and the emergence of water crisis.

    Asian Development Bank cautioned in its report that by 2030
    demand for water will exceed supply by 50% in India. Everyone needs water and everyone needs to take responsibility.

  • Water scarcity is the lack of adequate water necessary for functional activities required by living ; non living; organic; non organic bodies etc. It may be natural or man made.

    Causes of water scarecity in india
    Pulsating monsoon
    It causes scarecity for agriculture.

    Irrational use of water
    This includes wastage of water in household activities; execessive irrigation etc that lead to low ground water table.

    Lack of rain harvesting system
    Except the ordinary method of preserving rainwater; the scientific way of preserving rain water is still expensive in india.

    In some areas; excessive presence of fluoride and iron causes inadequacy of drinking water.

    Indiscriminate disposal of water
    Water used by industries are thrown into waterbody causing lack of water for that particular habitat.

    Lack of consciousness and unchanged mentality
    Consideration of water as immensely available resource is an impediment in regarding water as valuable resource.

    Increased desertification
    The increased desertification in western part of the country leads to water scarcity in india.

    Lack of legislation
    A legislation to impose tax on the use of water was considered but later dropped.

    Problems arising out of water scarcity
    Industrial problem
    it will impact on industrial processing as many industries use water as raw material including atomic energy sector.

    Agricultural and economic slowdown
    Breakdown of agriculture will lead to low GDP of the country caused by lack of adequate water.

    Spreading of disease
    Drinking  of impure water caused by lack of  pure water will eventually spread viral diseases.

    Impact on water table
    Low ground water table will adversely affect the soil fertility and thereby crop. It will also decrease the adequate drinking water in pond; tubewell etc.

    Impact on aesthetic beauty
    Lack of water might harm the scenic natural beauty and biodiversity of India.

    • Tuks

      samiran…….Very good answer…..(but One suggestion……I think Conclusion is missing….)
      Your all answers are really very good……keep writing……

      Pls review my answer and give your valuable suggetions to me……

      • Thanks turk..tumhara real name kiya he..hahaha

        • Tuks

          hahaha…….I have sent friend request to you on fb……find out…

    • racer2015

      maybe a bit on types of scarcity like physical, economical, sustainable etc will deal with it completely

  • Gurpreet singh

    2) What do you understand by water scarcity? Critically discuss the problem of water scarcity in India and its causes. (200 Words)

    ans)The water scarcity means interruptation in demand and supply of water which is required to survival of flora and fauna on this planet.in first place ,water is most important natural resource for mankind .Great civilization have been founded on banks of rivers -the egyptian civilization on nile ,mesopotamain civilization on tigris and euphrates,the indian civilisation on indus and chinese civilization on hwange he .Great civiliztion have been perished for scarcity of water -e.g. the sumerian civilization which was destroyed because of salt bulit up in soil.

    india has so many rivers(ganga,godavari,kaveri etc),lakes,pounds,glaciers etc.although india facing the scarcity of water due to uneven distribution of water .some states like bihar ,assam has so many problems related to over flow of water (flood,health related,agriculture ) and some states like rajasthan ,gujarat has so many problems without adequate of water.

    At other places ,water scarcity occur by over used water in irrigation of HYV crops (green revolution) like punjab,U.P .but now need new green revolution which protect us from water scarcity .In punjab ,govt. provide free electricity to farmers which also swear affect on undergroud water.Indian heavy industriesa also pollute the river water because some industries discharge the untreated water . there is neceesity a strict rules of pollution controll board.and over use in domestic purposes (over flow water storage tanks,open tap ,waste of water in filteration process -that water use in gardening ).this problem also removed by awareness programmes.

    in this direction,govt initiatives are awareness programmes ,hamara jal ,hamara jeevan scheem,punjab govt.have been establishing a filteration system for every village and cities.,

    there is also a our responsibilities to protect our planet with start new initiatives just like save rain water and use it according to requirement otherwise it send into the earth this is callad rain harvesting process.,to develop a low cost technology to use the sea water for drinking .it will help to develop our society,nation , our country and our blue planet.

    please review my answer.

  • Dhyan

    Water forms the basis of very functioning of healthy ecosystem . Water scarcity is a situation depicting insufficient availability of water resources to effectively cater to the needs of the country or people to –
    1. meet the basic survival of living forms.
    2. impart minimum standard of life- potable drinking water, sanitation.
    3. cater to the developmental need of the country- water dependent industries

    India being tropical country depends on Monsoon is highly uncertain and highly unreliable .With over 50% population in farming , these pulsating monsoons play crucial role in meeting their livelihood. The food production also decides our economic prosperity through exports.

    Also, with growing population , pressure on land is continuously increasing and to meet the demand more and more land has to be brought under irrigation . This would need huge investment thereby increasing our Fiscal deficit.

    The water scarcity also manifest in Inter-state water disputes infusing regionalism attitude among the citizens .It also lead over exploitation of groundwater reserves ,which are meant to be used only as a last resort.

    It is high time that the precious water resources are protected form excessive pollution and and used in most judicious manner.

  • yesIcan

    The lack of availability of water resources to meet the demands of water usage is called water scarcity .Water problem can be water scarcity,water crisis and water stress.

    Water stress is the difficulty of obtaining fresh water from the area.
    Water crisis happens if the availabilty of the water is less than the demand of the water at that place.

    Water scarcity happens due to climatic reasons like flood and drought.

    Areas in gangetic valley have enough water for household,agriculture ,waste management.But industrialisation is polluting water ,injecting their effluents into that water and threatening the lives of the people. Recent government ‘s “Clean ganga” Plan to save the river from pollution is a welcoming initiative.

    People in nalgonda,a district in telangana is suffering from disease “Fluoride” due to excessive concentration of fluorine in aquifers.

    Excessive rainfall in cities submerges lower places in the cities.In summer people from same area are suffering from water crisis.Government needs to increase awareness on rain water harvesting.

    More than hundreds of farmers died due to lack of water for their harvest in South India in the recent times.This problem became more severe due to shortage of power.

    Not only human beings,animals are also severely affected by water scarcity and water pollution.Rare species like river dolphin,bengal tiger and different types of fish are becoming extinct due to pollution of water like the way recently oil spilling happened in sundarban region

    • yesIcan

      Please review

  • Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.Water scarcity can be a result of two mechanisms:
    1.physical (absolute) water scarcity
    2.economic water scarcity,
    where physical water scarcity is a result of inadequate natural water resources to supply a region’s demand, and economic water scarcity is a result of poor management of the sufficient available water resources.
    India has world’s 16% of population but only 4% of water resources.there are several problems which has lead to basically economic water scarcity in most part of country.
    1.Infrastructure incapacity: in spite of sufficient amounts of rain much is drained because of lack storages, check dams, lack of interconnection between deficient and overflowing rivers.
    2.water guzzling crops in dry areas: agriculture alone requires more than 85% of all water resources, now with green revolution and development of command area(indra gandhi canal) rice and sugarcane is being grown in punjab & southwest maharashtra.
    3.excessive use of ground water: world bank data estimates india as second largest user of ground water, borewell expolision of 1975 has lead to alarming depletion of ground water.
    it has lead to arsenic and iron poisoning in eastern india.
    4.industrial pollution,untreated sewage,excessive use of fertilizers and open defacation have rendered both surface as well ground water useless in major part of country especially industrial towns and metros.
    Continued ignorance has caused several problems such as
    1.drinking water crisis situation has been alarming in metros.
    2.water borne diseases: high level of arsenic has led to spur in cancer related cases in west bengal and orrisa.
    3.inter state disputes- vitiating the political atmosphere of country
    4.destruction of wetlands and related biodiversity. dal lake has shrinked to 10% of orignal,
    mining activities led to extiction of many amphibian’s and fishes in western ghats.
    5.social and heath impacts on women: misery of women will increase in dry areas in search of water.
    6.can lead to increase in excessive migration to water acessible regions i.e cities.
    7.internal disturbances and naxalism type activities can increase most of water resouces are in tribal areas
    Thus as unicef 2013 report has warned time for business as usual is over concrete steps are required . improved institutional setup,community led initiatives,raising awareness ,adopting best practices of water conservation and preservation must be adopted on war footings.

  • Water Scarcity refers to the phenomenon in which the total demand of all stakeholders cannot be met. Quantitatively speaking it refers to the case in which annual water supplies falls short of the 1000 cubic meter per person. Issue of water scarcity assumes prime importance in the wake of the its linkage with all of the Millennium Development Goals.

    India suffers from physical water scarcity as well as economic scarcity ( a case in which water cannot be harnessed from rivers and lakes due to lack of economic means) . The region for the former is Rajasthan while for latter it is most of the Eastern part of India.
    Water scarcity manifests itself in various forms while in some cases we see population spending too much time to access water resource in other cases we see the number of cases of Diarrhea and other such water borne disease.
    Some of the cause include the lack of infrastructure to convert the rainwater into drinking water. The lack of water harvesting structure occupies the top spot. The absence of inter river linkage to convert the excess water flowing river (Himalayan rivers) to the southern rivers (non-perennial rivers)
    Government has taken various initiative such as Swacch Bharat Abhiyaan, mandatory water harvesting in Tamilnadu and Hamara Jal, Hamara Jeevan initiative.

  • Akshay

    Water scarcity refers to the situation in which there is lack of sufficient availability of water to meet the basic needs of population within a region. Sometimes this situation aggravates to an extreme form of scarcity, wherein there is little water available for meeting even the basic household and consumption needs of the population. Such form of water scarcity is called water crisis. Water scarcity moves in direct proportion to poverty and food security. The UN Millennium Development Goals (UN- MDGs) have critically established the link between access to water and women empowerment. Access to water directly affects the social and economic capital of women in terms of leadership, earnings and networking. Lack of safe drinking water results in a number of water borne diseases like cholera, Typhoid, malaria, diarrhea. Absence of water is also affecting agricultural productivity. It is resulting into desertification of agricultural land.

    The causes can be enumerated as under-

    1. Natural causes: Global warming resulting into reduced flow of water in rivers and streams, shrinking levels of lakes and ponds.

    2. Man-made causes: Human activities like Pollution, wastage and unsustainable management of water. Anthropogenic activities leads to extreme weather events which impacts the monsoon cycle. The geographical and seasonal variations in monsoon further magnifies the problem. Falling level of water table due to aggressive use of ground water sources.

  • IPS

    water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of the watr usage with in a region by its local flora and fauna. UN defines it as the water supply in the region drops below 1000m3 per perso, the region iis said to experience water scarcity.
    According to UN reports india sub continent is rated as the economic water scarcitycountries. it is a alarming for india to work for it, the reason in which india is in current situation are many but such as:-
    1. excess use of ground water with out proper management for irrigation.
    2. fast developing population and difficult in managing there demand.
    3. lack of facility to purified waste water.
    4. people are not aware of the saving water.
    now these all causes lead to the problem which need to look on time they are;
    1. as water scarctiy is there so people are ready to use any type to water whether it is clean or not and it lead to diseases.
    2. lack of awareness among people for proper usage of water makes water scare and loss of money.

    3. county will face food shortage.
    4. biodiversity will be effected and will disturb the food chain imbalance.
    5. will lead to desertification further climate change.

  • IPS

    PLEASE REVIEW……………..

  • IPS

    @[email protected] IAS….) PL REVIEW…………..

  • prayas

    Please give ur valuable comments…

  • Jayaram136

    while water is renewable resource. An area faces water scarcity when annual supply of water is below 1000 m3 per person. its both human-made and natural phenomenon.
    1. migration – peoples are moved nearby water areas.
    2. water conflicts.
    3. effects on human development pattern.

    1. urbanization.
    2. inefficient irrigation technique.
    3. falling of ground water table.
    4. lack of water distribution and management.

  • Gaurav

    Water scarcity is the situation whene there is unavailability of water to full fill the basic need of individual . In the quantitative terms water scarcity is saud to occur when availability of water reduces below 1000m3 per person anually.
    In india rising popullation, industries, agriculture owing to green revolution is putting strees to availabille water supply.
    Basically water scarcity is most adversely afeecting the marginalised section of people , samall agriculture peasents, slum dwellers, and the areas which already fall in to the arid areas.
    It’s not that there is shortage of water in India but the main problem is that either the water is unsuitable for domestic uses due to the pollution or it is not available due to the economin causes tahat is incability of harnessin water from river and lakes.

    Main causes for this type of shortages are.

    1. In urban areas there is no planning and infrastructure is not up to the level of catering to the needs of such a large popullation due to which at time of summers most of the metro cities has to face water crisis and most affected are slum dwellers.
    2. Water table is going down mainly due to two major reasons , firstly due to overexploitation of water for agricuture(owing to green revolution) and other domestic uses and secondly amount of water recharging the underground water is reduced due to the concretisation due to which most of the water instead of recharging is drained off.
    3. Another importact factor is that whatever water is available is being polluted to such a level that it becomes unfit for consumption basically due to the discharge of untraeted effluents from industry, contaminated water with chemical fertilizers , and sewage. Situation is so deplorable that what to say of drinking water is the river flowin near cities re not even fit for bathing.
    4. Another cause is lack of people awareness about the benefits of water conservation .It was found that if water is used judiciously even the available water can cater to the needs of much larger popullation.
    5. Lack of policies and their implementation : Even till date there is no concrete and long term policy to address this situation , even the basic rain water harvesting is done on very few places.
    India has been edowed with lot of water so problem of water scarcity is not natural one and it can be totally attributed to anthro pogenic reasons and can be resolved with proper policies and involvent of the the stakeholders.