Sociology – Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 6

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QUESTIONS: 29/10/2013 (Paper-II)

  1. Discuss the metaphysical and ethical basis of Hindu social organization. (300 Words)
  2. Critically evaluate the existing welfare programs for women in India. Have they benefited all sections of women in India? (300 Words)
  3. Outline the factors responsible for unrest in agrarian communities of India. What suggestions will you give to arrest this trend? (300 Words)


  • vino

    3. Outline the factors responsible for unrest in agrarian communities of India. What suggestions will you give to arrest this trend? (300 Words)

    Unrest among the Indian peasants is historical. Bipin Chandra observes that peasant movements had been a part of national movement since 1920. With the emergence of agricultural capitalism, the growth of green revolution and the spread of education along with the development of agriculture, unrest among the peasants has increased. The route of peasant unrest, therefore, lies in the social structure of peasantry, its history and the process of agricultural modernization.

    A.R.Desai very rightly observes that our peasants today are up in arms. The rural sociologists have analyzed the peasant unrest in different terms. Kathleen Gough terms it as peasant uprising, for N.G.Ranga again it is a struggle of the peasantry and it is peasant revolution according to Hamza Halvi. The sociologists who are oriented to Marxism have analyzed the peasant agitation as struggle on the pattern of class struggle and class war.

    In the post independent India there has come a revolution in agriculture. The subsistence farm produce has now become capitalistic. With the transformation in agriculture the situation of peasants has also undergone change. And, this change has given rise to many problems. The old stable social structure of the village community with its varied institutions had experienced a severe jolt during the British period and is undergoing rapid, almost hectic transformation after independence. The impact of elections based on universal franchise, of increasing competition, profit oriented production by peasants and of the emergence of various new institutions and associations- political, social and administrative, on various classes and castes, has resulted in a mobility and created a tension which is, in its intensity and depth, unparalleled in the history of Indian rural society. The pattern of political behavior of the peasantry is based on faction which are vertically integrated segments of the rural society, dominated by landlords and rich peasants at the top and with poor peasants and landless labourers who are economically dependent on them, at the bottom. Amongst the exploited sections of the peasantry, there is little or no class solidarity. They stand divided amongst themselves by their allegiance to their factions, led by their masters. The inherent weakness in his situation renders him more open to intimidation and setbacks can easily demoralize him. Land and agriculture are the state subject. And, therefore, the peasant unrest is the concern of the state government.

    • Ajit

      Vino, You missed the suggestion part. Some points in the unrest like pro-rich land reform policy, lack of infrastructural banking and financial system ,fruits of labour are taken away by Money lenders .
      Suggestion would be..emphasize on SHGs and cooperatives,rural women leadership and education,scientific farming facilities,proper implementation of community development programs…..

  • Q. Critically evaluate the existing welfare programs for women in India. Have they benefited all sections of women in India? (300 Words)
    Indian constitution envisages affirmative action for the women and looking into this principle government enacted various legislation for welfare of women. These were used as a tool to serve larger public interest of gender equity through social, political as well as economic emancipation of women.
    Indian government enacted Hindu Marriage Act and Hindu succession Act which talks about share of women in husband’s and ancestral property and also payments in case of divorce. Further government has provided reservation for women in PRIs and reimbursement of subsidy in the account of women for better family standards and a minimum marriageable age of 18 years.
    It has advocated for decrease in IMR and MMR through Janani Shishu Surakshna yojna and ICDS. It has opened various exclusive schools and colleges for educational support for girls. To change cultural dimension, it has been providing support to families under Dhanlakshmi Schemes. Further Women SHGs are given preference for interest subvention.
    However empirical studies point out that girl are married of early after attaining puberty. Rural women have no access to power in panchayats due to rise of sarpanch patis. They cannot demand share in property due to fear of social isolation and exclusion. They donot have access to infrastructural health services and are vulnerable to exploitation, rape, sexual abuse from male counterpart.
    Ost of the schemes suffers from regional as well as class and caste divide. When women in rural areas are undernourished, there suffer from obesity in urban areas. Further regional variations in economic growth of states have impacted women in big way.
    Women of higher caste gave no freedom in certain pockets and they have to confine themselves to patriarchal structure while dalit women are more independent due to social compulsions. Further corporate and working class women have benefitted from various government reservation schemes and used modern services while their rural counterpart and lower class have suffered from government isolation.

  • Q. Outline the factors responsible for unrest in agrarian communities of India. What suggestions will you give to arrest this trend? (300 Words)
    Agriculture class has seen upheavals both in past as well as contemporary times. Most of these upheavals are due to class and caste divide, differential impact of government’s agrarian policies and schemes.
    Utsa Patnaik and Kathleen Gough indicate how rich peasants and landlords benefitting from Green revolution have developed close nexus with politician, police and urban merchants and traders to improve their income and appropriation of profit. However poor farmers and agricultural laborers have lost the bargaining power and went for cheap wages labour. Hence increased inequality has contributed for unrest.
    Ranjit Guha indicate that policies of the government have contributed for land alienation, forcible marginalization, debt trap among the peasants and tribals which has led to movement in different pockets of the country.
    Gail omvedt considers that unrest in agrarian communities are a reaction to expanded and exploitative market supported by the state. Hence peasants movements are getting a momentum for protecting the private property of the land owners, labour of small peasants.
    According to Bhibha Saksena, Globalization has led to intensification of commericial agriculture and horticulture whose profit is appropriated by MNCs. Further government has seized the land of agricultural communities without adequate compensation for industrial interest and establishment of SEZ and Nuclear plants whose profits can never be enjoyed by farmers rather urban people.
    Therefore government must overhaul its failed agricultural policy and introduce new form of land reform. It must forward cooperative and community farming and reform APMCs to empower farmers to sell their produce directly to markets and enter into contract farming with industrial houses. Further adequate compensation in case of land acquisition and leasing facility to companies must be extended for assured returns and better prospect.

    • Ajit

      Good Job ! Sahil

    • Nice answer Sahil….

  • Manoj

    Q.3. Outline the factors responsible for unrest in agrarian communities of India. What suggestions will you give to arrest this trend? (300 Words).

    Ans.The roots of unrest in agrarian communities lies in prevailing agrarian structure.Differences were always persisted in the form of income,standard of living,land control,land ownership.But these differences were declared as normal and natural by traditional values and norms of traditional societies.Over a period of time political awareness among rural communities emerged and they got consciousness about their exploitation.Many organized groups and revolts emerged post 1918.For instance moplah revolt in 1922 was one of the first organized revolt.
    Factors responsible for unrest are-
    1.unequal and unjust distribution of resources is one of the primary cause of unrest.It includes unequal land distribution,failure of land ceiling etc.
    2.Prevailing unemployment is another reason of unrest.
    3.Displacement and land alienation because of government policies is another reason.Lack of proper rehabilitation policies further aggravated this unrest.
    4.Indebtness has also resulted in deteriorating conditions of peasants.
    In order to control these revolts solution lies in development.Unless these tribal and poor peasants are equipped education ,employment,dwelling units,proper helath facilities ,they cant become part of mainstream.Moreover civil society organizations