Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 44

Print Friendly, PDF & Email


  1. “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)
  2. Explain the working of Tsunami Warning System in India. (200 Words)
  3. Give an account of the movement for female enfranchisement during the Indian national movement. (250 Words)



  • raghusharmag

    1)Colonialism & INM:
    Colonialism demand the feeding of colonial master’s interest.Interest of local national’s demand their development. But colonialism is not such holy process which can manage both in holistic manner.
    Indian national movement (INM), though started formally in 1905’s swadeshi & boycott movement but traces its origin from 1857 revolt, work of indian association and origin of INC to mention a few. One common nature of all were their representation of people’s demand & make colonial master to aware about his extent of exploitation.
    During Swadeshi & boycott movement, the main element was partition of bengal on communal line but hidden aim was suppressing & isolating the revolution part of bengal. The other agenda was representation of indian in legislature and decision making,easing the revenue burden from already tattering public and agriculture, reducing budget of arm forces, elimination of corruption from administration etc. Thus in large all were representative of people’s interest.
    In NCM, the rowlatt act, inflation and other adversaries of WW-I, failure of montagu chelmsford reform to address the self governance were cause. People’s felt the WW-I has unnecessary spill over in India. But mercantilism of Britain provided them reason and any form of strong self governance would undermine british interest.
    The CDM of 1930 & National movement of 1940, QIM also had similar bases. They had more element of agrarian population, working class as both were feeding capitalist interest.
    Congress government during 1937 showed how self governance can emancipate the indian people & what colonial masters has not done? This was great impetus to independence demand.
    Capitalism of colonialism also restricted counterpart in India to mere consumer goods industry for protection of their investment. They brought 1930s recession’s hardship to indian people which was uncalled for.
    Thus to conclude, it can be said that in beginning of 19th century India believed that that world’s greatest power & so called civilized people will develop them, but by end of 19th & early 20th century they were sure that british are foreigner & we need national movement to protect us.

  • pls review my answer

  • Naveen Shekhar

    3. Give an account of the movement for female enfranchisement during the Indian national movement. (250 Words)

    In the inter war years, between 1917 and 1945, the women’s movement took up the issue of political rights for women predominantly.When Lord Edwin Montague,Secretary of State for India, came to India to join the Viceroy, Lord Chelmsford , Indian women saw an opportunity to demand political rights. This led to the foundation of the Women’s Indian Association(WIA) in 1917 by Annie Besant, Margaret Cousins and Dorothy Jinarajadasa, all three Irish women Theosophists, who had been suffragettes in their own country.They were joined by Malati Patwardhan, Ammu Swaminathan, Mrs. Dadabhoy and Mrs. Ambujammal. WIA was in a sense the first all India women’s association with the clear objective of securing voting rights for women.A Memorandum signed by 23 women from
    different parts of the country,demanding votes for women on the same terms as men was submitted to Montague and Chelmsford.

    The Indian National Congress at its session in Calcutta in
    1917, over which Annie Besant presided,supported the demand of votes for women and so did the Muslim League.A women’s delegation led by Sarojini Naidu met the Secretary of State and the Viceroy to plead their case personally. The women leaders argued that the
    absence of women in the legislative assemblies was deplorable and that their presence would be extremely helpful.

    Women’s organizations held meetings all over India to express support for women’s franchise.Consequently,the Southborough Franchise Committee toured India in 1918 to gather
    information. It accepted women’s petitions but was initially reluctant to grant then franchise to women as it felt that Indian women were not yet ready for it. Sarojini Naidu and Annie Besant went to England to
    present evidence before the joint Parliamentary Committee while local branches of WIA held meetings, passed resolutions and forwarded them to London. A delegation was sent to England to plead their case.
    The Joint Parliamentary Committee of Parliament finally agreed to remove the sex disqualification but left it to the provincial legislatures to decide how and when to do so.
    Travancore-Cochin, a princely state, was the first to give voting rights to women in 1920, followed by Madras and Bombay in 1921. Franchise was of course extremely limited. Women could vote only if they possessed qualifications of wifehood, property and education.

    The appointment of Simon Commission in1927 led to the second round in the battle for female enfranchisement.The WIA joined its boycott, while the All India Women’s Conference was divided and some of its members met the Commission. AIWC prepared a Memorandum to be submitted to the Franchise Committee of the Second Round Table Conference demanding universal adult franchise. The Franchise Committee under the chairmanship of Lord Lothian
    rejected universal adult franchise but recommended that 2 to 5 per cent of seats in the provincial legislatures be reserved for women AIWC rejected the demand for reserved seats.

    Further,the Government of India Act of 1935 increased the number of enfranchised women All women over 21 could vote provided they fulfilled the qualification of property and education. Women had to wait till after independence to get universal adult franchise.

    • phani

      very informative , but crossed the word limit sekhar..

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Naveen,
      I think this answer is copy pasted with few changes here n there in the grammar. You could have directly provided us the link.

      • Naveen Shekhar

        @ Asha Goud,
        Absolutely true !!!!
        But still how was the answer?

    • Naveen Shekhar

      @ Insights,
      Please review my write-up

  • shiv

    ans 1)
    There are several instances of contradiction b/w colonialism & interest of indian people.As can be seen from the demands of early nationalists ,they were not trying to overthrow the british rule but only wanted reforms for the benefit of indian people.Their entire critique was based on the drain of wealth theory.THe various eg. of contradiction of interests are:

    The use of india as a market for british manufactured goods & consequent destruction of indian handicrafts industry.

    The high rate of taxation made the life of indian peasants miserable.Not only peasants but zamindars were also affected adversely .The interest of british was only in more revenues but indian suffered heavily.

    The british increasingly tampered with & attacked freedom of speech and press.Various contraversial acts were passed like vernacular press act, arms act ,ilbert bill contraversy,rowlatt act etc. which created dissatisfaction. These acts only served the british interest of extending their rule in india.

    Against the wishes of indian people country’s resources were used by the british in two world wars & the indian people had to suffer the consequences like inflation,drought etc.

    The role of christian missionaries was also seen with suspicion by the indian people .In many cases christian missionaries went too far in critising indian religions and thus creating resentment.

    Thus the interests of indian people & colonialism were contradicting in every sphere of life including economic,cultural,political & religious. All these reasons combined together & formed a strong anti british feeling culminating into indian national movement.

    • Anjali

      Good answer shiv covered all points.

    • VINNY

      Good answer bro!!

  • Vicky…

    1. “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)
    Colonialism was based on authoritarianism, exploitation, anti-poor, restriction on civil liberties and rights. It promoted mercantilism and subordinated Indian economy and society to the needs of British economy and society. On the other hand, interests of Indian people lie in a democratic, just society having focus on equity and respect. The national movement thus was anti-colonial in ideology itself.
    British colonialism featured economic exploitation i.e. unequal free trade, high taxes, destruction of Indian industry. It was against this drain of wealth and unjust economic principles , that the national movement was based upon. Although arriving a bit, but socialist entrenched in the breath of national movement. Pro-poor and equitable economic democracy became the goal.
    The Political and Social restrictions under colonial rule were challenged. Democracy, civil liberties for speech, press and association were promoted. Popular representative government by universal franchise, which would take decision on the basis of majority public opinion and respect the views of minorities as well. Throughout the national leaders like Tilak, Gandhi, Nehru fought and stressed on these aspects. They were of the view that freedom of expression was the sole of a nation and no dilution in any way can be compromised on that as without them nation become impotent for anything substantial.
    Apart from these national movement brought popular consciousness against the oppression in castes, mobilised every section including women, students, workers, peasants, tenants therefore contradicting limited representation of a colonial ideology. Similarly colonial policy of ‘divide and rule’ was countered through secularism, universalism. Hence a clear anti-colonial, anti-imperial, democratic, socialistic, secular, just ideology formed the backbone of the national movement.

    • Hi Vicky,
      “On the other hand, interests of Indian people lie in a democratic, just society having focus on equity and respect.” is not correct. There was no such notion in the common Indian head before the start of INM.

      • Vicky…

        Wasnt there a desire of equity with respect to economic oppurtunities ?? Wasnt the stress on a just social order.. the various reform movement and tribal movements ?? dint the leaders demanded respect from the rulers ?

        • Yes they did, but as i said that was a secondary issue and came out only when there was a feeling of frustration and exploitation in the head of the common man. The ideal of democracy was not the root of the 1857 mutiny, Non-cooperation movement. It got added later into the INM.

          • Vicky…

            By democracy i am not particularly pointing out universal franchise. It is implicitly pointing to the arms act, vernacular press act, universities act etc which restricted the democratic civil liberties. And they definitely added to the national movement .

            • Vicky…

              Anyways thanks for the suggestions.I will take a note to convey the message properly next time. Really appreciate them. and continue our good criticism in future 🙂 THanks

  • cs

    the exploitation of the material and human resources of the colonies for the benefit of the imperialist power is the hallmark of colonialism.
    The british entered india as merchants and through a series of events that included wars, annexations and alliances became the masters of the country.the adverse consequences of this foreign domination created the moral, material and intellectual conditions for the growth of the national movement.
    The british in their quest to maximise their gains ruined the indian industries, destroyed the livelihood of artisans, and rendered the peasants helpless through exhorbitant rents and exploitation at the hand of a new class of intermediaries created by them through the permanent settlement.
    The workers in factories , mines and plantations felt vulnerable as the regime sided with the foreign capitalists.and the deindustrialisation of india at the hands of the foreign rulers created large scale unemployment.
    The traditional system of education was destroyed and the new structures and institutions created for education were limited in their scope and reach.the british wanted to create an army of lower level functionaries like clerks who could assist them in administration.higher and professional education were neglected and so was the education of masses.
    The colonial rulers had a sense of racial arrogance and they looked down upon the customs and traditions of the many cities the morphology was modified to create separate sectors for the natives and the whites.
    The indian intelligentsia recognised that the english wanted to subordinate indian welfare to british gain and were in no mood to develop the productive forces of india.
    This realisation coupled with the severe restrictions on freedom of speech, expression and personal liberty aroused the collective conscience of the indian people that they will have to stand up against the colonial powers if they were to have self rule, which alone could guarantee social, cultural and economic progress.

  • Ankit

    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain

    Colonialism is the phenomenon where the physical control of a colony coupled with subversion of its economy is done to further the interest of the home country. The colonial government bring in structural changes in the socio economic sphere so as to suit extension of its law and enrichment of its homeland.

    Indian context, the British colonialist had subverted the economic base, tinkered with the legal-social parameters of the society to clamp down its rule in the country. The central contradiction was that the Indian government placed the British interest higher than the natives, there was drain of wealth from India to Britain which bled India white. The political phenomenon between late 19th century to middle of 20th century , referred as Indian national movement was the expression of the Indian people to resolve the dichotomy.

    The national movement sole aim was that the government should work for the natives , for which it demanded variety of measures like representation of the Indian people in legislature and administration, voting rights, civil liberty rights, protection against foreign capital, support to indigenous base etc. The movement through the course of time realized that with the British rulers this task was impossible, which led to evolution of demands from swaraj to poorna swaraj and increasing militisation.
    It should also be noted that there are different perspective like of Cambridge school on Indian national movement and they held that colonialism and nationalist had no contradicition and believed in civilizing mission. However increasingly the view of nationalist scholars is being accepted worldwide.

    • ANKIT

      @ALL please review

      • Hi Ankit,
        1.I think you have answered the central contradiction between colonialism and India’s interests rather than the interests of Indian people. So, clearly people are missing from the answer, which should have been the focus.

        2.Also, the introduction does not need to explain colonialism. It is expected that aspirants already know this. So, your 2nd paragraph could have been the intro and you could have added other dimensions also in your answer. E.g. tribals,peasants, weavers which formed the huge chunk of the Indian population.

        3. The early seeds of INM were sown not because we were denied self-government. That is a secondary issue. It was exploitation that shackled the common man from his bed.

        The answer flows well and is also written well. Diversity was required in the answer.

  • amit
    • van

      thnks amit

  • Asha Goud

    Explain the working of Tsunami Warning System in India. (200 Words)

    A: Tsunami is an event when large waves are generated in the ocean due to ocean bed disturbance. These sea waves on reaching sea coast acquire destructive form due to high speed and height. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami caused huge loss of life and property, following which decision was taken to establish an Regional Tsunami warning System. Indian Tsunami Warning Center at Hyderabad is a part of the regional warning system.
    Indian Tsunami Warning System consist of Monitoring and data collection, data processing and forecasting, creating threat perception maps and identifying vulnerable areas and lastly dissemination of information and community preparedness.
    Network of 17 Seismic stations are established that keep real time monitoring of earthquake detection, Tide gauges and Buoys are placed in the ocean to detect and trace movement of Tsunami waves. Along with this data from ocean observation satellites can be used and using technology the data is processed to generate maps. Vulnerable areas are therefore identified, alerts and warnings are released.
    A very important part of Tsunami warning system is quick communication and evacuation of people to safe locations. To reduce panic it is important to provide training and education to local communities and enhance preparedness.

    • Hi asha,

      Possibly, you could have ignored the first 5 lines, as they tell more about Tsunami and less about the Tsunami warning system. After that, the answer is fabulous.

    • Anjali

      Good answer Asha.


    Explain the working of Tsunami Warning System in India

    There’s a general consensus that though natural calamities cannot be stopped however there casuality can be limited by appropriate mitigation strategies. Early warning of the disaster can significantly reduce the human toll.

    Tsunami warning system was placed by India after the deadly 2004 tsunami which led to loss of thousands of people and billions of rupees. The warning system is a comprehensive system consisting of Tsunami buoys at strategic points in the ocean , which detect any earthquake above magnitude 6 (richter scale) and also sense any changes in the sea surface. It transmits the information to the data centres at Chennai and Hyderabad which compile and analyze the data. There are tidal gauges present at various places along the Indian coast with tidal gauges which measures any varioation in the height of the tides. This data is also sent back to data centres for analysis. The data transmission takes place through satellite for minimum delay.

    Upon receiving of warning, the information is simultaneously passed to the state authorities as well as the crisis management group at th centre. The crisis management group responsible for coordination of various actors involved and the state authorities at the district level issue warning and start evacuation at the earliest.

  • September 4 2013 –
    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain –
    Answer –
    The INM started as a mass-based movement only during the last decades of the 19th century. But, the foundations were laid starting from the mid-19th century. Colonialism is nothing but a strong nation acquiring certain regions as colonies by territorial acquisition and dominating it in all the spheres e.g. politics, economics etc. India which was a colony of Britain was exploited in all ways.
    The ‘drain of wealth’ theory by Dadabhai Naoroji explained the economic interests of the British in India and its impacts on the Indian industry. The British were interested in the vast resources of raw materials in India and wanted to utilize it to the full for the development of the industries in Britain. India had a strong base in handloom industry and the Indian goods were famous overseas. The British policy forced India to export the raw material to the British industries and import the manufactured goods from those industries. The market for the goods produced in India got reduced due to the low price of the imported goods and the Indian goods could not match with the quality of the machine made goods from Britain.
    So, India became an exporter of the raw material and an importer of the manufactured goods from Britain. The Indian people were made aware of this by all the economists and nationalists and also that the reason for the economic situation of the people was the British policies. This finally resulted in the rise of the national movement against the British towards the end of the 19th century which was later taken to greater heights by Mahatma Gandhi, Balgangadhar Tilak, Gopalkrishna Gokhale, Subhash Chandra Bose, and Jawaharlal Nehru. Thus, it can be said that the mass movement was possible because of the contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.

    • Please rate my answer

      • Hi ramansv710,
        You have written well but you missed certain other aspects of the interest’s of indian people. E.g. tribals, peasants etc, which formed the biggest chunk of the Indian population.

        • Thanks for the review. I will definitely try to improve on covering all the aspects within the word limit.

  • Sudha

    1. “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)

    Colonialism works in the interest of British people and society by draining the wealth of India and dominating Indian people against their interests. Indian National Movement had an anti-colonial, anti-imperialistic ideology which was the reason behind the huge mass base in the struggle.

    Colonialism plundered the economic wealth of India by looting, high tax and revenue, employing British officials, free trade and exchange and by many other means. They also used India as a market for finished goods and handicapped the handcraft and small scale industries in India. These all in turn created a condition of poverty, unemployment and low wealth for Indians.

    Colonialism dint improve the education, agriculture, industry or induce the growth in India. The infrastructure like railways they developed was also with their own interests. Though Colonial Government assured that they are ruling for the good will of India, National leaders understood the real face of Colonialism and they took steps to spread the information to the masses as a part of the movement.

    INM struggled for the democratic parliamentary Government to improve the conditions of Indian people but the colonialism aimed at suppressing with the thought that democracy is not the right form for illiterate India. Indians aimed for a secular and socially radical society which was not considered by the British and they introduced separate electorates with a policy of ‘Divide and Rule’.

    Hence all the motives of colonialism were for the good will of Britain and its people by repressing the interests of Indian people. This central contradiction of anti-colonialism had lead to the growth and reach of INM.

    • Anjali

      Good answer Sudha, I think penultimate paragraph is not needed, Insights will guide this on best way

  • cs

    Q.Tsunami warning system in india
    The ITEWS, indian tsunami early warning system traces its origin to the catastrophic tsunami in 2004 which wrecked havoc all along the eastern indian ocean and exposed the vulnerability of indian coastline to this natural hazard.
    The ITEWS issues real time advisories on tsunami to the indian mainland and the island regions.operating under the auspices of the INCOIS, Hyderabad it is also one of the regional tsunami advisory service providers.(RTSPs) providing advisories to the indian ocean rim countries.
    ITEWS like any other early warning system involves the following four components- sensing the precursors, transmission of raw data, processing of data, dissemination of data.
    A real time network of seismic stations, bottom pressure recorders, and tide gauges assist in capturing the precursor events.decision support systems, modelling, simulations etc. Are used for data regards the transmission and dissemination of data the services of an elaborate communication network including satellites, gps, vsats, internet, mobile etc. Are utilised.
    But the early warning system is not an end in itself it needs to be integrated with the disaster management plans of the NDMA, community participation, awareness generation and capacity building.

  • Q1. Colonilsim and Indian national movement

    Peasants, artisans, tribals, workers, sepoys, industrialists and the intellectuals comprised the then Indian population. The British regime worked against everyone’s interest.

    Rumours of the use of meat in cartridges in addition to anti-religion service rules(e.g. crossing the sea to fight wars was in the colonial interest), incited the 1857 sepoy mutiny.

    Introduction of mechanized British textile products and painting techniques coupled with the free trade policy destroyed the livelihoods of millions of artisans, weavers and craftsmen.

    Alien forest laws restricted grazing in the pasture lands by taxation, banned jhum cultivation, snatched away tribal’s lands and destroyed the natural forest resources for serving colonial interests.

    Introduction of indigo, tobacco(cash crops) in lieu of increasing food grain production, high land and crop taxes, inflexibility in tax settlement, oppression by British supported moneylenders etc. crushed the poor peasant under huge pile of debt.

    Increasing British market share in India supported by the free trade policy and heavy sourcing of raw materials worked against the Indian industrialist’s interests. Thus they massively funded congress national initiatives and supported mass movements.

    The middle-class intellectuals got alarmed the severe oppression and drain of India’s wealth to Britain. Self-governance was continously denied to Indians. India was forcefully dragged into the WW-I.

    Even though foreign rule was not alien to Indian people but the British regime was different. All of this together culminated in several national movements such as Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience and finally Quit India movement.

    • Anjali

      Good answer Aditya.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Aditya,
      The 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th paragraph are relevant to the answer according to me. These should be elaborated + Flow of answer 🙂
      Its missing.

      • Thanks Asha, btw maintaining flow would be difficult in such an answer, as i have dealt with the interests of different classes in different paragraphs. Anyways, would take care of it.

        • VINNY

          Seems Sociology is your optional. Anyways a different and catching approach!!

          • No Vinny,my optional is public administration. Thanks for the feedback.

  • September 4 2013

    2. Explain the working of Tsunami Warning System in India.
    Answer –
    Early warning mechanisms for natural disasters are becoming an increasing necessity as we are witnessing the damages caused by many earthquakes, tsunamis, cyclones etc. India suffered a big Tsunami on 26 December 2004 resulting in the loss of the lives of thousands of the people residing in the coastal regions.
    India developed a Tsunami early warning system which not only serves the Indian cause but also for the countries around the Indian Ocean. This was part of a The interim services were followed by Indian Tsunami Early warning system (ITEWS) at India Centre of Information systems (INCOIS) at Hyderabad under Earth systems sciences organization (ESSO).
    This system consists of many sensors, tide gauges and a wide network of communication devices. The setup is in place which will send advisories, alerts (Fax, Phone, E-mails, SMS) to the INCOIS control room within 1-2 minutes. This helps us in giving the authorities a lead of 20-30 minutes which can be used to help in vacating the people in the coastal regions. Thus, the established system will certainly help in prevention of a future disaster.


    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain
    The Britishers came to India as merchants and gradually became the rulers. The sole objective of this British rule was to serve their own interests and to fulfill it by any means or methods.Prior to British arrival Indians were relatively prosperous and well off. They led a happy and dignified life.The agriculture sector, cottage industry and the handicraft industry were at their peak.But the repressive policies of colonial power resulted in the breaking of back-bone of Indian industry.It led to widespread poverty and starvation.The famine and hunger death became a regular phenomenon.But even then the only concern for the Britishers was to squeeze the Indian poors and fill their coffers.
    It is in this backdrop that Indians started raising their voice against their colonial masters.The anger and frustration of people started taking shape in the form of protests and revolutions.The “Peasant Movement”, the “:tribal uprising”, the “sepoy mutiny” all were directed against the Britishers and their draconian policies.The establishment of Indian National Congress gave direction to this struggle and it took the form of Indian National Movement.The early objective of INC leaders was to promote the interest of native people and lend them some voice. The “Swadeshi andolan”, “Non-coperation movement”,”Civil-Disobedience movement” and many such other movements highlighted the apathy of Britishers towards the reasonable demands of Indians and convinced Indian leaders that the British rule is meant for serving the interests of the colonial masters and Indians can take the path of development and prosperity only if they attain self-rule by liberating themselves from the colonial rule.
    This self-realization ultimately led India to gain freedom from colonial power and allowed people to participate in the nation’s development as well as their self progress.


      INSIGHTS please review this answer.

      • vishu

        Q The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)
        British colonialism in INDIA was based on the philosophy of exploitation, suppression, of indians and fullfilling the intrest of british government.It was always intended to maximise the british intrest at any cost.
        In this process they took some steps in the form of social reform like abolishing of sati pratha through act, child marriage which instigated the radicals.
        To fullfill the needs of british industries they made india as source of raw material, and they didn’t make india to develop industries . they abolished import duty on british good and imposed heavy duty on indian export in this way they thrashed the indian market due to this industrial group was against of british.
        under the forest act they prohibited tribal from cutting trees and imposed ban on entry in forest area .this causes livelihood problem for tribals who were primarily dependent on forest product.
        They compelled farmers for indigo plantation under tinkathia system insteed of foodgrains ,and during procurement they didn’t give appropriate price for their produce.Due to this during famine their was no availabilty of food grains which caused deaths of thousands.
        British colonialist supression policies against farmers instigated whole india , as large parts of the indian poulation was having farming as occupation.
        Rumour of using gun cartriage made of cow’s meat set a fire in the hearts of indian hindu sepoy and they thought that britishers are trying to corrupt their religious belief. Apart from it order for going in VERMA WAR by crossing sea was another blow on their religios belief .
        in this way every section of society was having its own grievanes ,and ultimately with increasing awareness they came together and took part in national movement against british colonialism

  • Vicky…

    2. Explain the working of Tsunami Warning System in India. (200 Words)
    The earthquake and following Tsunami of 2004 exposed the vulnerability of Indian coasts to tsunami threats. Thus Government of India setup a Indian Tsunami Early Warning System(ITEWS) in the Indian Centre of Ocean Information System(INCOIS), at Hyderabad . The
    System consists of real-time network of seismic stations, Bottom Pressure Recorder(BPR),tide gauges and 24×7 operational surveillance to such threats. This warning system provides tsunami advisories and alerts to the vulnerable communities. It gives the tsunami bulletin within 10 minutes of a an Earthquake thus leaving a sufficient response time to the people.
    It maintains a database of the previous movements and provides forecasts. The identification of the vulnerable areas also falls under its mandate. With the help of satellites and seismic stations it is capable of generating geospatial maps and providing necessary information for a planned rescue operation. More people can subscribe to its alerts if they desire so.
    The 2004 disaster led to a massive loss of life and property in Indian Subcontinent , especially in Andaman & Nicobar Islands. This system now ensure sufficient prior watch over such incidents so that any future disaster can be managed effectively. It also coordinates with the systems of other regional countries and verifies the information.

  • Insights pls review. I thought question was based on d ideology. So I discussed in general. Can you please advise whether we should include event specific details or general approach is enough. Kindly suggest

    Others: please review

  • vipul

    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.

    Since second half of 19th century, people from different classes of India society joined the national movement to form a united front to oppose the colonialism. There was a growing sense of awareness among the people about the contradiction between their and colonial interests.
    Popular risings among tribal & farmer against colonial powers, before and after 1857 were clear indicators of rising discontent. Colonial land policies & revenue system had badly affected the agricultural families in several parts of the country. Forced cultivation of Indigo and poor market rates had worsened the condition of peasant-tenants. Colonial policy of introducing middlemen in tribal areas had disturbed their peaceful isolation and forced them to work as agriculture laborers.
    Import of cheap factory manufactured products had destroyed the domestic Handicraft industry .Economic suppression was the main cause of growing unrest among the traditional artisans of Indian society. Several zamindars were unable to pay the high tax under colonial system and had to forego their right of Land and pushed to register their opposition to colonial policies. Village headmen and Zamindars used to share a customary religion tax with Sanyasis. Many of the Zamindars were already under the burden of colonial tax system and could not meet their obligations to Sanyasis.
    Educated class of Indians were imparting the political education to masses and putting forward the native demands before colonial powers. Educated class raised their voice against widespread colonial discrimination against the Indians. They demanded more participation in government services, right of Indian to try Europeans in criminal cases, reduction of military expenditure etc. Many of educated leaders initially demanded for the constitutional reforms which later changed to complete independence.
    Colonial exploitation (political as well economic) had awakened the consciousness of common people of India that became the base of Indian national movement later.

  • sai

    Indian national movement which started with the establishment of Indian national congress in 1885 went through many ideological and structural changes. started as a ‘safety valve’ Indian national congress and hence the Indian national movement turned out to be a mass movement owing to the fact that colonial rule was completely against the interests of Indians and is exploitative.

    During the early moderate phase of the movement British rule is seen as progressive and in the best interest of Indians. Also some social reform legislations like abolition of sati, women education were legislated. But with sepoy mutiny in 1857 the policy of British changed to non interference in the matters of social reform and they progressively adopted the divide and rule policy. Economic exploitation of British was exposed by works like drain of wealth.

    Cottage industries, agriculture, artisans were collapsed. famines struck, many people died but industries in England had access to cotton, indigo, salt from India. They also had a free market in India at the expense of Indian industries. India was always a colony and remained so till the British left India.

    By the dawn of 21st century Indians were well aware of the divisive politics of British and started asking for swaraj. But British responded with acts like 1909 and 1919 which not only fell short of meeting the demands but also divided society on the basis of caste, class and religion. Consequently Indians responded with non cooperation movement, civil disobedience movement and quit India movement.

    So it can be seen that British exploited India in all aspects to facilitate their rule but the exposition of this exploitation was made evident by nationalist leaders and hence the movement acquired mass character ultimately resulted in the Independence.

    • sai

      @insights sir please give your comments.
      @all please comment on the answer

  • Anjali

    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)

    Central to the theme of British rule was economic exploitation and Iit was the economic hardships drawn many sections of Indian population into INM.Mass base of INM was from peasants, workers, proletariat, bourgeois, and others were from capitalists, educated youth, govt employee.

    British wanted to maximize revenue as much as they can and adopted inhuman practices to realise it. Drain theory exposed that British is mainly responsible for the economic misery of the people And people started practically realising it after WWI due to high prices of all the commodities. And extended all their support to NCM.

    Gandhiji’s theme of swaraj not merely related to political freedom but also freedom from all sorts of economic exploitation. He penetrated this into peasants and workers who were already aggravated due to exorbitant rent and harsh working condition and less numeration respectively. and they participated in INM. A poor and illiterate man only understood that throwing away British rule will stop their economic exploitation and bring them economic prosperity.

    Educated youth were aggrieved due to unemployment and economic opportunity, higher govt offices were only reserved for British peoples, capitalist have to face uneven competition because of free trade policies of govt. Indian employee were paid less than their British counterparts. In their own country people were denied any benefit.

    British framed all policies and implemented them accordingly which will serve its colonial interest. This resulted into undue exploitation of all sections of society.INM was the culmination of economic grievances of all sections of socity to end that exploitation.

  • vipul

    Give an account of the movement for female enfranchisement during the Indian national movement.
    Rise and rapid growth of Indian national movement was accompanied by the growing awareness among the Indian women for their rights. Gandhi Ji’s non-violence movement had increased the scope of women participation in national movement. Women leaders used the nationalist argument against British rule as the base for their demand for equality.
    Home rule movement spear-headed by the Annie Besant in 1997 was successful to generate political consciousness among the Indian women. Later Annie Besant, Margaret Cousins founded the Women’s Indian Association (WIA). When Montague travelled to India in 1917 to study the social conditions prior to framing the new reforms for India. First claim of suffrage was made by WIA. Their other demands included education, training in skills, local self- government, social welfare etc. Southborough franchise committee came to India in 1918.Women leaders carried on agitation to make them aware about the demand of Indian women. But the committee was reluctant to advocate their demands amid the fear of opposition from conservative group in India. Annie Besant & Sarojini Naidu, Herbai travelled to England to provided their full support for women enfranchisement before Joint parliamentary committee. Committee left the matter for provincial elected legislatures to decide.

    Madras council was the first one to pass the resolution for women suffrage. Later other provinces (united provinces, Assam etc.) also passed the resolution for women suffrage. Though the enfranchisement was limited due to qualification conditions such as of wifehood, property and education but it had opened the opportunity for women to ask for further reforms.

    Ten years later when franchise committee under Lord Lothian visited India , All India women congress and WIA jointly raise their demand for universal suffrage which committee rejected and recommended the reservation of women in council. Reservation in council was never a demand from any women organization. Committee widened the enfranchisement by making the right to vote applicable for women over 21 provided they fulfilled the qualification of property and education. GOI 1935 act, did not decide on qualification for women enfranchisement.

    Women organization used the national movement as the right platform to launch their demand for rights. But they could not receive the wide spread support and majority of women in the absence of political education could not grasp the significance of right to vote. Universal adult franchise could never be achieved under British rule.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Vipul,
      Word limit..?

  • Asha Goud

    Give an account of the movement for female enfranchisement during the Indian national movement.

    A: The Indian National Movement (INM) and Women’s right movement were interlinked as the national movement gave women a platform for action and the national movement received strength from women participation. Congress provided opportunity to women leaders to lead from the front and simultaneously its strategy for constructive work made women participate in movement at grass root levels.
    During initial years of formation of congress, organizations like Bharat Mahila Parishad and Stree Mandal came up and these organizations discussed social issues like purdah, education, sati, infacticide. As INM acquired mass charated and demands for more participation in governance was initiated the Women India Association (WIA) was formed under the leadership of Annie Besant, who presided congress in 1917. WIA put forward the demand for political tights for women like representation in legislative and executive councils and voting rights. These demands were made in the form of petitions and memorandums to Montague and Chelmsford in 1917 who were working on constitutional reforms.
    Annie Besant and Sarojini Naidu gathered support for issue of political participation of women. Thus the GOI Act 1935 gave authority to provinces to provide political representation and voting rights to women if provinces wished. Madras and Bombay gave voting rights to women by 1921.
    Demands for further equal participation of women in political process was raised infront of Simon Commission by WIA and All India Women’s Conference (AIWC). These organizations worked in close collaboration with Congress and boycott Simon Comission. Thus were able to persuade government into provide voting rights to women above 21 with limited restrictions based on education and property in the GOI Act 1935.
    Equal political participation was allowed to women only after independence. However functional participation by women is still to be achieved.

    • Naveen Shekhar

      Asha,good answer …though it seems you are inspired from the same souce from where I have taken everything.

      • Asha Goud

        Yes absolutely Naveen, you are correct. But words are mine. 🙂

    • Anjali

      Very informative answer Asha.

  • Anjali

    Give an account of the movement for female enfranchisement during the Indian national movement.

    National movement tried to resolve many doctrinal debates about the desirability of women’s role in the public sphere by various practical examples and for that purpose it created special platform for women to participate in national movement.

    Indian Congress allowed a women president in 1916 and it was after Gandhiji’s entry into India women participation in INM got stimulus.
    Gandhiji always advocated greater role for women in building a prosperous nation.

    During CDM, in some places salt satyagraha was led by prominent women like Sarojini Naydu in Dharasana. Apart from NCM and CDM women also had participated in all streams of National Movement, from Gandhian to Socialist, to Communist to revolutionary terrorist. They were also present in peasant movements and trade union struggle.

    Women’s organizations were formed, and All India Womens Conference was the most important one. Its objective were many with principle focus on betterment and upliftment of women. Participation of women in INM, proved their mettle to work in public sphere. Particiaption of women in INM opened up new avenue to women’s emancipation from age-old subjugating social customs.

    INM advocated that, if women could march in processions, defy the laws, go to jail, then could also aspire to take up jobs, have the right to vote, and may even inherit parental property. Stress was laid on women education, and awareness among women about their rights.

    All the efforts taken during INM for women’s empowerment were realised fruits after independence in the form, right to vote, Hindu Marriage Act, Hindu Succession Act, Hindu Adoptation and Maintanance Act.Extension of legal rights to women was a big step forward but still lot needs to be done.

    • Asha Goud

      Hi Anjali,
      The answer talks about women participation in National Movement and Women Empowerment.
      Question is specific to Enfranchisement.

    • Naveen Shekhar

      Anjali,the answer misses the point drastically,though it would be a good answer provided question regarding women empowerment during freedom struggle is asked

  • Asha Goud

    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.

    A: British came to India as traders of East India Company and by the time British left they were governing majority area of India. During the entire period the nature of British association with India remained as that of foreign exploiters. Initially as traders British merchants were able to appease local rulers and gain trading concessions such that local traders perished. Local artisans, craftsmen, craftsmen, peasants perished because of absence of competing traders and buyers. British merchants therefore made huge profits at cost of local people.
    British parliament took over but continued exploitation that was disguised. Adoption of policy of free trade led to large scale export of raw material and import of manufactured goods. Policy of land revenue and zamindari left peasants impoverished and as tenants on their own land.
    Tribals were stripped off their rights on forest and forest products thus deprived them of livelihood and culture.
    As a result of such policies peasant movements and tribal movements emerged during the second half of 19th century.
    The early nationalist exposed such exploitative nature and held British rule responsible for the impoverished condition of Indian people.
    Middle class educated intellectual class put forward demand for equal participation in governance. The British kept avoiding under the pretext of unpreparedness of Indians for self governance.
    Therefore the economic policy and political structure of British rule in India was such that it gave priority to British interest and kept Indians dissatisfied. The dissatisfaction finally culminated as the Indian national movement for independence that was one of the largest mass movements in history.

    • Anjali

      Asha conclusion is very good.

  • vipul

    Explain the working of Tsunami Warning System in India

    Indian Tsunami Early warning system (ITEWS) had become an imperative after the disastrous tsunami in 2004 that left lakhs of people dead in the country. Out of 10 Nations affected by Tsunami in 2004, only Indonesia received any warning. In 2007,ITEWS setup at Indian national center for ocean services became fully operational . ITEWS also provide tsunami advisories to the Indian Ocean rim countries along with Australia & Indonesia.
    How it works:
    Tsunami warning system consist of four components.
    Seismic gauge: This Is used to gauge the earthquake or volcanic eruption which may cause Tsunami.It consists of two components.
    Bottom Pressure recorder-It is located at the bottom of ocean and measures the pressure of water above it which varies according to wave height. When the Tsunami passes over the head station, recorder shows increase in pressure over a long distance.
    Tide gauges-Records the sea level at coasts

    Surface buoy-is positioned near the bottom pressure recorder and send data to satellites
    Land stations-Analyze the data from sea and coast level censors and decide if the Tsunami is on it way and accordingly alerts the authorities & vulnerable communities
    Satellite-Collect the information from surface buoy and send it to warning station on lands.

    The Indian Tsunami Warning system is capable of detecting earthquakes in the whole of Indian Ocean region as well as in the Global Oceans within few minutes of their occurrence. There are two subduction zones(earth quake & volcanism prone areas) of Andaman-Sumatra and Makran in Indian Ocean,) that can affect the entire Indian coast line . Tsunami warning system helps to detect the occurrence of tsunami. Advisory is sent to vulnerable areas within few minutes of detection so that people get more time to respond to the disaster and disaster impact is mitigated.

  • Amudhan

    The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.
    Colonialism is the subversion of another countries interest for the sake of its own. The INA is the product of the contradiction however it forms do vary, from the early nationalist period whose primary aim was to educate the British public of the dismal state of the Indian population. They hoped such a revelatory exercise, as loyal British subjects, would jolt the British Parliament to take the necessary action in India. Failure in this mission led to the realization of the true nature of colonial rule of Britain as articulated by DadaBhai Naoroji’s ‘Drain theory’ in economic terms.
    Post Indian Council Act 1891 the moderates gained the ability to scrutinize the budget and used it as an effective tool to highlight British excesses and lack of educational spending to the masses through the use of the press. This contradiction was crystalized in the Swadeshi movement and was articulated against the partition of Bengal within the colonialism framework. This was the seed time in the Indian National movement and it was at this time inculcation process was completed.
    The maintenance of this contradiction as the fundamental platform for all political interlocution in the Gandhian period asserts its significance as the raison d`etre of the INM. Furthermore attempts at shaking this foundation by fomenting divisive forces such as propping Hindu-Muslim contradictions, caste and linguistic variables as an attempt to counter the INM and its chief proponent the INC by the British supports the claim. However this was dealt with effectively such accommodation of Ambedkar in the Poona Pact or the Muslim league in the Lucknow pact.

  • Ananya Basu

    “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)
    The Indian national movement had so many facets that it is difficult to say what actually was it’s nature. No doubt it was about resentment of the colonialism, the economic drain from India to England, the secondary treatment to indigenous products, the imposition of Christianity in the otherwise reluctant and orthodox Hindus and Muslims, the interference in religious practices and the insensitivity shown to them, biased payment for Indian and British soldiers of the same rank so on and so forth.
    The colonialism and imperialistic policies of the British were not taken kindly in India as anywhere else in the what they called “ the white man’s burden ”was actually a burden not only on the land but also on it’s people and their individual doubt that British policies were successful in removing the cobwebs of unjust practices like sati, untouchability etc and ushered in an intellectual generation which combined religion with science, encouraged women’s education, promoted rational thinking and also ushered in infrastructure development.
    No colony can maintain the interests of the local people as the basis for colonialism is exploring distant lands for trade and exploitation of resources so that the mother country benefits. During British rule , Indians were neglected if not totally discarded .The freedom to live on their own , the freedom to do and speak as one wishes was gone. Everything had to be in tandem with the British policies. Indian national leaders only channelized this resentment to achieve freedom for India.

  • Rizwan

    1“The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.

    Colonialism includes process of exploitation by one country on other countries resources in one or the other ways.British through its vested interest has been responsible for exploitation of India on all dimensions-social,political,economical.Nationalism as an ideology grows due to dissentment and sufferings of the people on the foreign rule.
    On political front,The legislative policies of British namely Indian councils act 1892 where people demand for Indian entry in legislative assembly has been responsible for emergence of Moderates on main stage and the disarray in implementation of the act through soft measure led to emergence of Extremists.The split of Bengal as administrative decision by Curzon led to severe protests in most parts of the country and the idea of ‘Swaraj’ has been declared for the first time which sowed the initial seeds of Nationalism in Indian people .The real motive of the decision is supression of extremists and moderates.On the similiar lines,major reforms like Minto Morely reforms and Montague chelmsford reforms ,Govt of India act have been designed by british which were differed by Nationalist leaders.This series of events have been base for seeking of Self Governance,Dominion status ,Partition and Complete Independence.

    On economical front,the dissentment between masses and the govt have been witnessed primarily due to Land revenue policies,Insufficient Budget,lack of infrastructure building,unemloyment,Trade policies ,Salt laws etc.These were visible in various peasant movements,civil disobedience movements and tribal movements.

    On Social front,the agitation between masses and the govt has been wide like demand for communal electorate,depressed classes,lower caste movements,forsest policies affecting the tribes,Indian army regiments etc which have affected the sentiments and social base of the society.
    Also the British particiaption in WW1 and WW2 though has been protested by Indian nationalist leaders initially but later they were supported due to concessions given by the govt like self government,dominion status demands.
    It was a blessing in disquise that colonial policies which were designed for welfare of indians has been responsible for oubreak of nationalist thought in the minds of Indians.
    Considering these dimensions,we can clearly say the feeling of Nationalism has aroused due to contradiction of colonial policy and people and India should thank the masses for their sacrifices and sufferings in achieving the freedom

    • Rizwan

      please review my answer

  • DAY44 question 1 The beginning of national movement lay in understanding the basic contradictions and divergence of Indian and British interest.initially Indians believed in sense of justice and fair play from British.they believed that association with British would further Indian interest. they thought slowly development and self rule would ensue. However it dawned on them that British were unwilling to concede any of the demands. They found that British rule was not progressive as it pitted one community against another ( divide and rule). Further poverty unemployment under development famine became the characteristic of colonial rule. The early nationalist attributed these to deliberate colonial policies causing deindustrialisation and destruction of native industries along with exorbitant land revenue collection.
    Deliverance from this bondage they felt lies in severance of subservient economic and political ties with British. Classic examples of exploitative colonial policies were railways as a exploitative tool rather as a developmental tool hollow constitutional reforms with responsiblity without real power. Nationalist realised this state of affair s would improve only if they took state of affairs in their own hands say British must quit India.the seed of nationalism thus lay in realisation of these divergent interest.

  • ashok

    Q “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)

    In one perspective the indian national movement was a gradual precipitation of clash of economic political and social interests of the people of india with colonialism. The colonialism adopted different strategies in different phases of its operation in india and the people of india accordingly adopted different means of expression for the contradiction.

    In 1857 revolt the people of india though not in mass level but in a limited level fought against the colonial ideology political annexation and religious apathetical attitude for the hindus and muslims. The medieval india attempted to restore itself against the growing military policies of the east india company.
    The tribals movements had at its root the economic stress caused by forced agricultural practices, interference with their forest rights and forced displacement generating huge stress in their social and economic life.
    Similarly the initial phase of indian national congress under moderates clearly displayed the economic exploitation of indian resources, dismantling of indian cottage industry by selective discrimination of tariff structure thereby infusing general resentment in people against the british goods as evident later on in boycott and swedeshi movements
    In the days of world wars, the socialism and trade unionism and socialist parties vehemently brought this contradiction with colonialism in the democratic processes of protest, demand and general election thereby discovering the exploitative face before the masses.. The boycott of british goods was one of the central tool of Gandhi ji’s mass satyagraha like Dandi salt satyagraha represented the general unrest against the exploitative face of colonial power. The Extremist and terrorists element also openly supported the scourage of economic exploitation of indian industry and resources and popularized the anti british attitude. The right wing ideologies like RSS and Hindumahasabha also showed economic and cultural antagonism for colonialism.
    Thus we find that all diverse elements of indian freedom struggle coming from different strata of society though had internal diffrernces but had consensual confluence on the exploitative character of colonialism in india..

    • The answer is crisp and well rounded. Covered all the struggles launched by various segments of population.

  • ashok

    hi Insights…..please see this sir…and give your views

  • Q: “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain

    A: East India company which started off a trading firm soon developed military, administrative and political wings and was able to capture a substantial portion of the Indian subcontinent. However the british government aware about the events, was quick to take control of the company and by the charter act of 1859, put the final nail in the coffin of company. And India officially became a fully fledged British colony. Colonialism implies political, economic, and often cultural subjugation of a country to advance the interests of the colonial power in pursuit of well defined objectives.

    Hence colonialism was in direct conflict with the Indian interests. It was used as a vehicle to reduce India from a country contributing almost a quarter of world GDP to a pauperised, famished, backward nation whose whole function in the context of global economy was one of supplier of cheap labour, raw materials and market of factory goods. The contradictions were clear:
    1. Land revenue policies were directed to amass wealth for the colonial masters by extracting unsustainable taxes.
    2. Introduction of cash crops were a major reason for the widescale famines which wiped out a good fraction of the Indian masses.
    3. Indian textile industry was literally targeted and ruined by the British. Heavy import duties in Britain on indian finished products and duty free arrival of cheap goods meant paupersiation of textile industry.
    4. And the very concept of alien subjugation was contradictory to the idea of Indian nationalism.

    With the spread of western education, educated Indians got infected of French Revolution and its ideas of Liberty, Fraternity and Equality, inspired by the American independence movement and its Bill of Rights. The education gave them the motivation as well as legal tools to lay the foundation of organised Indian National Movement. The Bolshevik Revolution and transformation of Soviet Union was a huge inspiration against the colonial regime. The economists like DadaBhai Naoroji were instrumental in bringing out these contradictions clearly in layman’s terms.

    As more and more Indians could see through the ulterior motives of the British and use of even so called “beneficial steps” like Railways, foreign capital to further the cause of British in India, the British claims of them acting as agents of “White Man’s Burden” proved unsustainable. Gandhiji was instrumental in using these contradictions to mobilise people.

    To sum up, Indian National Movement was the culmination and expression of central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.

    I request the moderator to please review the answer.

    • Hi all,
      Wonderful forum. We should evaluate each other’s answers to ease the pressure from moderator. Somebody please review my answer. 🙂

    • Hi Abhilash,
      Good answer. But a few suggestions:
      1. Try not to cross the word limit as in this answer(411 words). You would not be able to find time for answering all the questions.
      2. Avoid numerals as much as you can in any essay type of questions. The rationale behind this is to show your comprehensiveness and flow of thought process while adhering to the word limit.
      3. Introduction need not explain the rise of colonialism as it is not the concern of the question and also eats up your valuable time and space.\

      • Aditya,
        I really appreciate the efforts you took in analyzing my answer. Thanks a lot for the inputs and I will definitely take a note of that in future.

  • ashok

    hii anyone please evaluate n comment on my answer…Asha ji or any one here plss

  • “The Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interests of the Indian people.” Explain.(250 Words)

    Any issue can be seen in the defined frame of reference. The frame of reference directs us towards the conclusion. During Indian national movement, Indian people thought they were fighting for social, economic and political prejudices caused upon them by colonial power. These thoughts were guided by two components: One was history and other the contemporary politics. On the one hand Indian people were deprived of social, political and economic freedom they enjoyed earlier; on the other hand they were also aspiring to see the progressive development in India which was already happening elsewhere in the world.
    Indian handmade cloths were ruling the world when British came to India. By the time, they got political power; Indian textile industry lost the ground and millions of weavers became jobless. British filled Indian market with cloths made in British industries. Similarly, various tribal communities had to flee the forest because British wanted wood for making railway lines which was being developed primarily to collect materials for feeding industries in Britain and dump Indian market with British products. Thus Indians had to give up something for the gain of British.
    Britisher’s attempt to transform education system and social practices was quite often derogatory in nature at the same time these were guided by a feeling of cultural supremacy.
    Most of the movements were primarily aimed at political concessions because political power can affect economic and social interest, of people being governed, dramatically. When Indians were fighting to get the political power, Colonial govt. was denying them continuously to retain the economic benefit.
    Thus we can see that the Indian national movement was basically the product of the central contradiction between colonialism and the interest of Indian people.

  • Pingback: Dallas Sporting Goods Store()

  • Pingback: Consultar CPF Online()

  • Pingback: fashion at discount prices()

  • Pingback: reputable fashion brands()

  • Pingback: New York Sports Memorabilia()

  • Pingback: Matthias Brandmüller Produkte()

  • Pingback: transporte o env�o de carga internacional()

  • Pingback: POV Porn XXX()

  • Pingback: under armour curry 2 australia()

  • Pingback: watch google instagram porn()

  • Pingback: symptomer p� orm hos hunde()

  • Pingback: iTunes Backup Password Recovery()

  • Pingback: website ranking()

  • Pingback: POV Porn()

  • Pingback: Biznet()

  • Pingback: judge judy()

  • Pingback: judge judy()

  • Pingback: sports betting strategy()

  • Pingback:

  • Pingback: jugos naturales antiinflamatorios()

  • Pingback: jugos naturales antiinflamatorios()

  • Pingback: Leah()

  • Pingback:

  • Pingback:

  • Pingback: starting a business()

  • Pingback: how do you start a business()

  • Pingback: ervaringen sociale controle()

  • Pingback: wholesale nfl jersey()

  • Pingback: sociale controle breda()

  • Pingback: NZT()

  • Pingback: sociale controle bv()

  • Pingback: sociale controle bv()

  • Pingback: 25000 euro kredit ohne schufa()

  • Pingback: holiday packages greek islands()

  • Pingback: sikerler videosu()

  • Pingback: IELTS institute in Karachi()

  • Pingback: IELTS in Karachi()

  • Pingback: when do french summer sales start()

  • Pingback: french summer sales dates()

  • Pingback: پنجره()

  • Pingback: Bola news()

  • Pingback: Situs bola()

  • Pingback: Best colon cleanse()

  • Pingback: Best colon cleanse()

  • Pingback: 2 دانلود قسمت هشتم سریال شهرزاد فصل دوم()

  • Pingback: iptv privado()

  • Pingback: pisces love compatibility test()

  • Pingback: showerhead high pressure()

  • Pingback: Best Torrance Tax Preparer()

  • Pingback: Torrance Tax Accountant()

  • Pingback: xfun porn()

  • Pingback: best kurtis()

  • Pingback: Architectural 3D rendering services()

  • Pingback: SketchUp 3D Modeling services()

  • Pingback: real estate marketing()

  • Pingback: international real estate offers()

  • Pingback: groin wrap()

  • Pingback: new music reggae dancehall pill cosby()

  • Pingback: Pill Cosby No Foreplay()

  • Pingback: marketing automation()

  • Pingback: Lena Paul()

  • Pingback: best solo ads for make money online()

  • Pingback: dumps shop()

  • Pingback: rescator()

  • Pingback: best dissertation writing service()

  • Pingback: Dissertation Writing Service()

  • Pingback: Phone Call Forwarding Services()

  • Pingback: Call answering services()

  • Pingback: beat child support()

  • Pingback: streaming film bokep()

  • Pingback: streaming film bokep()

  • Pingback: Evening Desert Safari()

  • Pingback: Desert Safari Dubai()

  • Pingback: free bitcoin mining software()

  • Pingback: cryptocurrency mining()

  • Pingback: Martindale Abrasion and Pilling Tester()

  • Pingback: Martindale Abrasion Tester()

  • Pingback: cum sa()

  • Pingback: afla tot()

  • Pingback: wedding favors()

  • Pingback: wine glasses()

  • Pingback: judi online()

  • Pingback: Wealth Generators estafa()

  • Pingback: Wealth Generators()

  • Pingback: Desert Safari Deals()

  • Pingback: Desert Safari Deals()

  • Pingback: Urdu News()

  • Pingback: buy university degree()

  • Pingback: buy a degree()

  • Pingback: peppa()

  • Pingback: peppa()

  • Pingback: payday loan()

  • Pingback: Sheep()

  • Pingback: balloon()

  • Pingback: youtube kids()

  • Pingback: youtube kids()

  • Pingback: Handloom dress()

  • Pingback: Handicraft()

  • Pingback: rhymes for kids()

  • Pingback: kids video()

  • Pingback: finger family()

  • Pingback: kids cartoons()

  • Pingback: Core()

  • Pingback: Health()

  • Pingback: 110db Piezo Buzzer Siren()

  • Pingback: Smd Speaker()

  • Pingback: Apartment renovation()

  • Pingback: Renovation of apartments kiev()

  • Pingback: for kids()

  • Pingback: rhymes()

  • Pingback: nursery rhymes()

  • Pingback: learn colors on the sea()

  • Pingback: chansons beatles()

  • Pingback: chansons beatles()

  • Pingback: stop motion animation()

  • Pingback: nursery rhymes()

  • Pingback: miners hosting()

  • Pingback: miners hosting()

  • Pingback:

  • Pingback:

  • Pingback: gender scan()

  • Pingback: ramzi method()

  • Pingback: Digital Marketing Services()

  • Pingback: Business Development Company()

  • Pingback: 2017 best cars()

  • Pingback: 2017 all new cars()

  • Pingback: 2017 affordable cars()

  • Pingback: Betis Kencang()

  • Pingback: Latihan Paha()

  • Pingback: Slim couture reviews()

  • Pingback: Slim couture()

  • Pingback:

  • Pingback: Fitness Embodied()

  • Pingback: CashMoneyAP New HipHop Rap Rapper Indie Conscious Music Video BeeJay Asé()

  • Pingback: Garcinia Cambogia Weight Loss Pills()

  • Pingback: Weight Loss Pills Garcinia Cambogia()

  • Pingback: Ronald Alphonso()

  • Pingback: Commercial mortgage()

  • Pingback: Neato cd labels()

  • Pingback: official website()

  • Pingback: success marketing institute()

  • Pingback: success marketing institute()

  • Pingback: stock market()

  • Pingback: stock market()

  • Pingback: Buy Bitcoin with PayPal()

  • Pingback: Buy Bitcoin with Credit Card()

  • Pingback: amcik()

  • Pingback: spy camera()

  • Pingback: spy camera()

  • Pingback: christmas gift ideas for girlfriends()

  • Pingback: christmas gift ideas for girlfriend()

  • Pingback: christmas gift ideas for girlfriends()

  • Pingback: christmas gift ideas for girlfriend()

  • Pingback: Self Storage Units and Facilities in Oakland Park()

  • Pingback: Self Storage Units and Facilities in Oakland Park()

  • Pingback: We buy homes Milwaukee()

  • Pingback: We buy homes Milwaukee()

  • Pingback: funky bass lines female bassist pierrebass()

  • Pingback: funky bass lines female bassist pierrebass()

  • Pingback: gta 5 money hack()

  • Pingback: top table tennis robots()

  • Pingback: ping pong machines()

  • Pingback: Venom vs Spider()

  • Pingback: Youtube Nursery Rhymes()

  • Pingback: Police Car()

  • Pingback: Monster Truck()

  • Pingback: Bandar Ceme()

  • Pingback: Bandar Ceme Terpercaya()