Insights Daily Answer Writing Challenge Day – 33

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QUESTIONS ASKED DAY – 33 (22/09/2013)

 1)“Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing  field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India.

 2)Analyze how  CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.

3) What are the important features of Drugs and cosmetics act, 2013?(100 words)

RESPONSES:

  1. 8 Votes

    2) Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.
    Ans
    Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act was passed by US administration in lieu of the clandestine approach and lack of transparency of Iranian government’s nuclear programme. It has been feared by US that Iran’s nuclear program is running an underground faculty for the production of nuclear weapons of mass destruction which can destabilize the peace and security of the world. The act seeks to starve Iranian import dependent economy by pressing the countries to decrease oil import from Iran and penalizes foreign banks who trade with Iran’s central bank.
    The act severely restricted India to import oil from Iran, absence of which would have led to sanctions on India itself. However the decreasing oil import has not affected the trade ties to a large extent between India and Iran. Both have continued to cooperate at both bilateral and international platforms like NAM. Further trade has now been started in terms of Rupee and a kind of commodity exchange system has been put in place.
    India supports a credible inquiry of the nuclear program which does not compromise the interest of Iran’s security. In addition both have been working on the road map for regional transport network. India sees Iran as an important business partner for its energy security and investment. Iran is also considering providing India with access to its Chabahar port for access to central Asia and Afghanistan. Recently with falling rupee value against dollar, Iran provides a opportunity for India to tap its burgeoning oil import bill.
    Hence despite growing sanctions by western countries, both countries have found new mechanisms to put the relations on track making them natural partners in international politics.

    • Sudha
      4 Votes

      3) What are the important features of Drugs and cosmetics act, 2013? (100 words)
      To ensure ‘Good Clinical Practices’ and to prevent the exploitation of poor and vulnerable people by big pharmaceutical companies new rules were inserted with the amendment of Drugs and Cosmetics act 2013. The important features of the act are
      1. The sponsor should provide medical management or financial compensation for injured and financial compensation to nominees for death of the trial subject.
      2. The prerequisites to get permission from Licensing authority for the human trial are clearly laid down.
      3. Along with the reasons for entitlement to claim compensation the act also authorises Licensing authority to take actions as necessary in case of injury/death of trial subject and failure to provide compensation.
      4. The role of Ethical committee is mandated both to sanction the protocol and investigate the reports.

      • Shubhangi
        1 Vote

        More on factual side less conceptual side.

        Why bill> to regulate drugs, cosmetics, clinical trials and medical equip.> thus comprehensive> old act not covered clinical trials and medi equip.> SC also directed govt to regulate

        Provisions 1. Durgs and cosme> cdso will issue license> not state drug contrlr
        2.regulates clinical trials
        3. Regulates medi equip.> promotes domestic manufct
        4. Creates central drug authority> control central n state drug cntrlr
        5. Does not cover AYUSH drugs

    • Shubhangi
      Rate This Response!

      very good answer. Inclusion of falling rupee value , NAM, chabahar, commodity xchng, trade in rupee are really good points.
      Best thing that u included to data like $40 bln bla..bla..bla..
      Keep it up

  2. SREEJESH
    5 Votes

    2)Analyze how CISADA has affected ties between India and Iran.

    India and Iran do share millenia old friendship.They have supported each other nicely in the past. But in the past few years U.S. led international economic sanctions against have affected Indo-Iran ties considerably.In particular,the U.S. act, “Comprehensive Iran Sanctions,Accountability,and Divestment Act,2010″ has put a large number of sanctions against Iran. The CISADA imposes sanctions on foreign companies that invest more than $20 million a year in Iran’s energy sector. As a result of this act $22 billion, 25year LNG deal between India’s GAIL and National Iranian Gas Export Company has remained unrealized.The backbone of Indo-Iranian ties is the trade in oil and natural gas.This is why India is reluctant to go with U.S. and other European powers against Iran. India imports 70% of its’ oil consumption and Iran is second largest exporter to India after Saudi Arabia.The U.S. sanctions has created difficulties in making payment options. India has stopped making payments through Asian Clearing Union. Though some alternative arrangements have been made.India has started making payments in domestic currency which is used by Iranian importers to make payment to Indian exporters.
    Although India has energy compulsions to have better ties with iran, it is also true that India doesn’t support nuclear enrichment programme of Iran and amassing of weapons of mass destruction.That’s why India supports any U.N. based reasonable sanctions against Iran.It has strained the Indo-Iran relations but both the countries know how important it is to have better mutual relations to promote each others’ interest.

    • SREEJESH
      Rate This Response!

      INSIGHTS please do re view this answer.
      thanks

      • Rate This Response!

        Answer is very good. You could have touched some other areas too. Like – Regional connectivity, Enhancing bilateral trade and economic cooperation, Cooperation on regional security issues and Enhancing cultural and people-to-people contact in the light of CISADA (though it is mainly to do with energy imports/exports sanction on Iran, we have to show how this sanction has affected/not affected overall relations with India)

        Answer is compact and many points are well covered within word limit.

        • SREEJESH
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          Sir,
          due to word limit i have not touched those points. I too have wished to mention them.Anyways thanks for your review.

  3. Shubhangi
    4 Votes

    “Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India.

    Recent approval of government for field trials of Bt crops and subsequent stay on the same by Supreme Court has once again highlighted the need of looking at BT crops not only from economic and environmental perspectives but also from cultural view point.

    Bt crops and traditional crops are different. Bt crops are product of science while traditional crops are product of nature. Being product of nature, traditional crops are marked by inter-crop & intra-crop diversity and endemism due to variations in geography and climate at the place of their origin. This diversity and endemism produces diversity in culture through variations in regional cousins, food habits, cropping pattern and crops and harvest related cultural festivals. Finally, traditional crops save the culture by protecting endemic and diverse crops from species specific resistant pests which may result in complete elimination of some varieties of crops that are culturally important.

    But Bt crops may jeopardize this culture-crop relation by destroying intra-crop diversities i.e. endemism and promoting popular crops such as rice and wheat in place of millets and local food grains which are more important for the nutrition needs of tribal and poor. Further, Bt crops produces monoculture which is very harmful for soil and less protective against pest attack.

    Therefore, any approval of field trials of Bt crops should take holistic view on impacts of Bt crops on environment, economy and on crop-culture relation.

    ( 232 words)

    • Shubhangi
      Rate This Response!

      @ALL ……PLEASE REVIEW….it was really very tough form me to answer.

      Insights please review.

      • 1 Vote

        It is a very good answer. Only examples are missing. Also, the context in which this statement was made should be mentioned.

        Even recent example of manufacture of National Flag from Bt cotton in Karnataka which created small controversy is a cultural factor to be considered.

        Effect on tribal culture is another factor. Herbs and medicinal plants – threats to their diversity from the spread of weeds.

        Festivals associated with particular crops and cropping seasons. (you have mentioned it)

        The report from where this quote was taken mentions a breed of Brinjal, Malapur variety in Karnataka which is associated with temple festival and religious ceremonies.

        For more info: http://indiagminfo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/TEC-Main-Report-2.pdf (page no. 82 – 83)

        • Shubhangi
          Rate This Response!

          Insights, Yes I forgot to mention bt cotton flag(desi versus videsi variety feeling). I wanted to incorporate examples like rice-fish culture of bengal….terrace farms of utrarakhand etc….but constraint of world limit.

          Insights, who has made this statement?????? How can we remember the context and orator of statements all the times considering plethora of scientists, leaders and environmentalist? Please guide?

        • Shubhangi
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          Insights I have touched upon tribal issue 2nd last para.

  4. Nirmal Singh
    4 Votes

    The impact of CISADA on relations between Iran and India needs to be analysed multidimensionally i.e. at economic, strategic, social and cooperation at international level.
    Although the economic sanctions on Iran have shown negative trends in gains made over the years yet diversification of trade has reduced the risk. The India has been chief exporter of food, pharmaceutical and Textile products. The recent initiative by India to create separate rupee account from which Iran can import essential items is a welcome step. At the same time both have suffered dip in respective key sectors like in India Banking and Industries like Reliance, while For Iran it has lost its position of top oil exporter to Iraq inspite of wooing India with lucrative deals. Further India is pursuing USA to waive off TAPI deal from sanctions by playing Afghanistan card.
    At strategic level the relations seems less affected. The Chabhar port deal, Anti piracy cooperation and strategic cooperation through forums like IOR-ARC, high profile exchange of visits further strengthened the same on the contrary.
    India has a substantial Diaspora in Iran. The slowdown of economic growth due to sanctions has caused problems to immigrants especially low paid workers. Yet the social ties are far from regressive as it has caused problem for country as a whole not only immigrants.
    No doubt India seems to dance to the tune of west when it comes to economic sanctions, yet there are many areas of convergence at international level. The climatic talks, UN reforms, NAM, North South Corridor, Syria talks illustrate the same.
    The depth of relations at many fronts, diversification of trade, social bond and common ideology at international level has hedged both from letting their ties victims of CISADA sanctions and is a proof of solidarity of relations.

    • Shubhangi
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      Good approach to locate multiD of impact of CISADA. Good intro and good finish.

    • Rate This Response!

      At least one line of information on CISADA was needed to build the context.

      Some important points like recent 17th India-Iran Joint Economic Commission meeting where very important decisions were taken; How India’s exports to Iran have jumped by around 35%; how energy needs and security issues have brought them together…. etc are missing.

      Analyze means breaking into parts and examining: you could have used these broad areas and analyzed – Regional connectivity, Enhancing bilateral trade and economic cooperation, Cooperation on regional security issues and Enhancing cultural and people-to-people contact.

      • Nirmal Singh
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        Can I integrate your suggestion in present answer under economic and social areas .I have tried to break present question into economic,social,strategic areas.Is that okay?Sir it is important as through these questions and your suggestions i can truly understand meanings of ‘key words’ .Thanks in advance.

        • Rate This Response!

          Yes exactly – you could have integrated them under economic, strategic n social areas. You structured your answer well, but depth was needed.

          Try to use diplomatic parlance if possible in questions like this. Observe The Hindu how they use word for domestic news and international news. ‘Key words’ are important but they should be used well according to context.

  5. tushar
    2 Votes

    2)Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.

    CISADA which refers to US law for imposing sanctions against Iranian oil companies and Iran’s central bank has impacted the Indo-Iraninan relations also. However, India’s response to these sanctions has been a cautious one. Instead of taking extreme positions it has tried to balance its relations with both USA and Iran giving utmost priority to its national interests.

    India is a net importer of oils and imports around 70 percent of its oil requirements. Completely stopping imports from Iran would affect its economy adversely. Hence it has expressed its inability to cut down the oil imports completely.

    Moreover, CISADA and the EU sanctions on Iran are over and above the UN sanctions. India has maintained the stand that it will abide by the UN resolutions and not US and EU sponsored ones.

    In addition, India is grappling with weaker rupee and because of huge import bills its Current Account Deficit is further widening giving rise to infaltionary problems back home. to counter it India has signed agreements with Iran Central bank to pay for Iran’s oil in rupees which Iran utilizes to buy Indian exports.

    However, India has done a balanceing act by reducing its imports with Iran gradually to the tune of 10%. It has also started to diversify its oil imports by buying more oil from Iraq than Iran.

    Post US sanctions, it has been difficult for countries to maintain relations with Iran and most of the nations have toed US and EU’s line. However, CISADA has not altered the principled stand of India on Iran.it opposes CISADA terming unjust and outside the scope of UN resolutions. This stand has been realized by US as well as it has recently exempted India and few other nations from sanctions for engaging with Iran.

    • tushar
      Rate This Response!

      Insights,

      please review.

      Thanks,
      tushar

      • Rate This Response!

        Good answer. Nice structure. One or two lines on how CISADA has not affected India’s relation with Iran on other areas of concern like regional security, regional connectivity should have been mentioned. Answer is one dimensional.

  6. RV
    2 Votes

    2)Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.

    The Comprehensive Iran Sanctions , Accountability and Divestment Act 2010 prohibits investment both monetary and technology in Iran in a way that helps them develop their petroleum resources or helps in import of refined petroleum products especially gasoline. The sanctions mainly are U.S. prerogative to choke the Iranian economy in the wake of their continued pursuance on developing nuclear energy which U.S. believes would culminate in nuclear weapons production.

    Having been the first country to sign Treaty on Friendship in 1950 to voting against them and transferring the dossier of their nuclear programme from IAEA to UNSC ,India’s relation has gone through various phases . Through CISADA U.S. has pressurized India to reduce their imports of Iranian oil and recently RBI had prohibited transactions through the ACU. Under U.S. diktat even the fast progressing talks on IPI pipeline were slowed down to near termination of the project.

    However realizing the importance of Iran with respect to its Energy Security , a stable and peaceful transition to Afghanistan and an important gateway to Central Asia India has tried to thaw the coldness developed in wake of CISADA sanctions. It has routed its payments through the Gazprom bank of Russia and recently has reached an agreement on direct exchange of rupee and commodity for oil imports. It has shown interest in developing the Chahbar port , has earned stakes in Iranian oilfields and has plans of building an underwater sea pipeline for gas import.Moreover the attendance of Tehran NAM summit by the Prime Minister and recent visit of the vice president for presidential swearing has reiterated India’s position to pass this litmus test of independent foreign policy by following a nuanced path.

    • RV
      Rate This Response!

      @ Insights : Sir plz provide you review on this !

      • Rate This Response!

        This is a very good answer. However, if you added some data (from today’s The Hindu) – like how exports have grown from India, import of crude by MRPL for refining – would have increased the depth of this answer.

        In the introduction a line on India should have been included.(answer is about India-Iran relations) Otherwise, introduction is superb.

  7. 1 Vote

    1) “Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India.
    Ans
    The statement was made in a report published by Supreme Court appointed technical expert committee on Bt crops. It has been pointed out by the committee that Bt crops not only compromise the environmental and human health but also have an adverse impact on the crops having origin in India and will impact its diversity.
    The Bt crops being the product of scientific enquiry and is based on modification of the genetic traits of the crops cannot be considered as an equivalent of natural crops which are the product of natural origin, selection and evolution leading to diversification of various indigenous crops. The committee recommends complete ban on the Bt crops who’s natural crop is having origin in India as it has been consumed by large group of human population and the former’s toxicity may have an impact on human health. Further as crops are grown in fields, it may adversely affect the other crops which are in close proximity with the Bt crop field.
    The natural crops share a special relation with nature and thus its origin and diversification is in consonance with the laws of nature. But transgenic crops may be a based on static consideration that do not change its traits(evolve) with time leading to no diversification in crops and that may led to compromising the food security and cultural popularity they have with the people. In addition to that there is lack of risk assessment and product monitoring in the introduction process of crops.
    Thus Bt crops are only driven by profit motives without any proper monitoring and lack futuristic diversification that may make it vulnerable to other pests etc.

    • Rate This Response!

      @ insight
      Sir please comment. I think i have spoken most of the things out of context. Did not understood the question completely. Please provide with adequate data.

      • 1 Vote

        You have explained very nicely how transgenic crops affect crops of origin. Cultural dimension is missing.

        Even recent example of manufacture of National Flag from Bt cotton in Karnataka which created small controversy is a cultural factor to be considered.

        Effect on tribal culture is another factor. Herbs and medicinal plants – threats to their diversity from the spread of weeds.

        Festivals associated with particular crops and cropping seasons should be mentioned. Cuisines and food habits are also affected.

        The report from where this quote was taken mentions a breed of Brinjal, Malapur variety in Karnataka which is associated with temple festival and religious ceremonies. I think we can get many suc examples from different states.

        For more info: http://indiagminfo.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/TEC-Main-Report-2.pdf (page no. 82 – 83)

    • Shubhangi
      Rate This Response!

      How did you know remember that it was a quotation from SC appointed TEC?

  8. 1 Vote

    3) What are the important features of Drugs and cosmetics act, 2013?(100 words)
    Ans
    The Drug and cosmetic act 2013 was introduced by health ministry and it seeks to streamline and incorporate various new issues that have emerged in recent past. Various features are
    1) The clinical trials will be regulated and compensation will be provided in case of any infection or death during the trial.
    2) It provides penal punishment for violation of law and brought the sale of spurious and illegal drugs under legal ambit with cancellation of license.
    3) Increase regulation on drug equipments and new drug equipment technical board will be constituted
    4) The license for clinical trials and drugs will be issued by the central authority and state drug control office will have no say in grant of license.

  9. vipul
    2 Votes

    “Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India

    Insect attacks is world wide problem in agriculture which leads to yield losses and deterioration in product quality.Estimations are that each years insect attack destroys nearly 25 percent of food crops worldwide. Baccillus thurinigiensis (BT) is a bacterium soil toxic that is toxic to various insects.If the plant can produce the BT toxic itself then farmers can avoid the use of chemical fertilizer.Scientist have used genetic engineering to take the bacterial genes needed to produce Bt toxins and introduce them in the plants.Such seeds are called genetically modified seeds.

    Use of GM is not without concern.Impact on people health & environment ,seed choice available for farmers etc are some of the concerns which have been constantly raised agri-activists & scientist.
    First GM crop approved for release in India was BT Brinjal but its release was rejected by the then Minister of Environment and Forests Mr. Jairam Ramesh. If the GM crops are introduced in the area which has been origin of crop & have several crop varieties available ,GM crops have the potential to reduce the diversity and genetic purity.Some varieties in crop have significant ceremonial and medical utilities..For example oryza nivara ,variety of rice has certain medical benefits or a variety of brinjal is used in temple ceremonies.The centre of origin of brinjal is believed to be India. India is also a major center of diversity of Brinjal with approximately 30 species of wild and cultivated relatives found in India.Introducing GM crops will only introduce monotonous crop culture but take away the significant ceremonial and medical advantage along with it. So far no food crops have been introduced in their center of origin.

    Seed companies (Monsanto & Du-pont) together control more than 5o % of world GM seed market.If GM is allowed then few seed companies will be controlling the total food supply of India.Supreme court had setup a technical expert committee(TEC) after a Public interest litigation on field trial of GM crops. TEC suggested to stop all the field trials for GM crops until the proper regulatory system is in place.

  10. Evika
    3 Votes

    1)“Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India.

    There is a growing controversy over the use of transgenic food crops in India. While our PM has shown his support in favour of the new technology, the SC, in its final report, has recommended a stay on field trials till gaps in regulatory system are addressed.
    One of the main issues for GM critics is the transfer of genes across species and kingdoms due to cross breeding and cross-pollination. If the pollen from a GM plant were carried to a non-GM plant by a bee or other insect, then it is likely that the resulting seeds would contain modified genes. This could affect ceremonial and medicinal varieties of plants, as its intrinsic values would be lost. Also, there might be induction of animal genes into plants hurting sentiments of some populations especially in a religious country like India. It is believed that GMOs will lead to monoculture, threatening the biological diversity of our food supply.
    The utilitarian issues are many like it will make the Indian farmers self-reliant and alleviate poverty and hunger while ensuring food security. However, the high incidence of farmer suicides, by those who cannot access this technology due to lack of finance or information, cannot be ignored. India should not succumb to scientific imperialism and become testing ground for US developed GM seeds, which is seen as a desperate attempt by the developed countries to achieve the MDG of removing hunger globally. The government should act on the interests of food safety, security, and sovereignty as well as protection of environment and farm livelihoods.

    • Evika
      Rate This Response!

      Insights, I wanted to know whether the last para could have been replaced with examples, like you have commented on the above answers.

      • Rate This Response!

        Yes. in the last paragraph cultural dimension is missing. India is already self sufficient in food crops. We don’t need GM ‘food’ crops (observe your first sentence in last paragraph)

        Also, in the introduction, it is not ‘SC in its report’. (report by a committee constituted on the orders of SC)

        • Evika
          Rate This Response!

          Yes. TEC report. My mistake.
          I wrote food security in the sense that the price of vegetables will go down with Genetic Engineering. So it will be available to the those who cant afford at present.
          Thank you for the valuable comments. :)

          • RV
            Rate This Response!

            Evika moreover that line on food security is unwaaranted as in the report it was clearly said nowhere else in world GM has been used to produce crops for mass consumption + you could use some examples :) liked d cross breeding part !

            • Evika
              Rate This Response!

              Hi RV. I know More examples were needed. :-/
              I guessed that the cheaply available GM crops would be used to feed the populace(so we can safely say ‘mass consumption’ though the report might not have mentioned it); but yeah in Europe its used to feed the livestock as well.

  11. Abhishek
    Rate This Response!

    1) “Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India.
    *
    The Recent decision of the select committee of the union cabinet on allowing field trails for some selected Bt crops and the subsequent stay on any such trail by the supreme court has again resurfaced the debate on the suitability and long lasting implications of crops Transgenics on the soil and the existing crop diversity.
    Natural crops of the endemic varieties in their present form of grain size,texture and colour,their adaptation to the local environment ,to the climate of the region,soil,other neighbouring crop varieties etc have got developed in a period of time through a process of natural selection and the then existing agricultural practises which also encompasses the type of insectiside or pesticide traitionally been used locally.
    In a country like ours where we have small land holdings and a culture of Mixed farming,two or more natural crops are produced simultaneously.If instead of natural crops some laboratory born Transgenic variety is introduced in this crop culture ,over a period of time it will disrupt the existing balance which can disastrously affect production and can also cause irreversible damage to the soil and the ecosystem.
    The proponents of It’s field trails should take the example of the countries like US,and countries of latin america where these Transgenic crops though significantly boosted production in the beginning,are now reigning havoc on the entire agricultural machinery.Production has significantly fallen down,Pest and insects have become more restitant,the chemicals have entered the food chain owing to the loss in the quality of soil..etc
    A country like india where almost 50% of its population are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood,the risk is not worth taking.

  12. vipul
    Rate This Response!

    Drugs and cosmetic act ,2013

    Drugs and cosmetic bill 2013 has been proposed to replace the exiting D&C act 1940.D&C bill 2013 is a comprehensive legislation and covers various new aspects and several short comings of previous act.Some of important features of act are as under:
    1)Bring licensing of critical drugs (life saving drugs,vaccine etc) under the central control .There has been incidences when state government issued the drug licenses without appropriate trial on drugs efficacy & safetyrities.
    2)Bill propose to set up a Central Drug Authority which would judge the actions taken by state and centre control authorities.CDA will also have power to suspend or cancel licenses issued by state or cente autoh
    3) Bill also proposes rules for compensation in case of death or injury during clinical trials and penalties in case of violations.This proposal is very significant in light of several illegal clinical trials reported in M.P. on adults,children and even mentally ill person in recent past
    4)Bill propose set of rules to regulate the medical devices which were absent in previous rule

  13. Evika
    Rate This Response!

    2) Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.
    Since the Islamic Revolution, the US has been imposing economic sanctions on Iran. CISADA is an extension of these sanctions that would punish companies and individuals, which aid Iran’s petroleum sector. It was due to its fear that India had voted against Iran in IAEA and had to suffer when Iran shelved the Iran-India-Pak pipeline project.
    Despite these barriers on the economic front, India has continued to import crude oil and natural gas from the region. Though India reduced oil imports from Iran, it has expanded trade in other commodities like tea, pharmaceuticals, automobile and electronics.
    Due to deteriorating ties with Pakistan, it is imperative for India to develop Chabahar port, located in Iran, to gain access to Afghanistan and the regions beyond, particularly for natural gas supplies.
    West Asia is growing through a phase of political transition and its effect can be very well felt on our rising petrol prices. A military attack on Iran can further deteriorate the situation. So we need to cooperate with it to ensure regional security in the region. Also, the two countries could together help restore peace in Afghanistan to ensure that the Taliban doesn’t take over its governance. This is also related to security in the Kashmir region.
    The two countries shared a border till 1947 and therefore have strong commercial, energy, cultural and P2P links, which the recently held 17th India-Iran JCM and the NAM summit held in Delhi in 2012, brought out. Cultural festivals are held from time-to-time in both the countries to make them aware of each other’s cultures.

  14. lakshmi prasanna
    Rate This Response!

    1.This statement origin from the report given by Technical expertise committee set up by Supreme Court. In its final report says to halt field trials of GM crops for an indefinite time. Recommends research the impact on traditional genetic pool and its chronic toxicity in future. Also says to scrutinize it completely with expertise scientists from different fields.
    India is known for its bio and cultural diversity and its crops origin is sources for genetic heritage. Such crops are useful for breeding plants that can adjust to changing climate, agricultural, and nutritional needs. These conservations can be lost on allowing utilitarian issues to dominate. GMOs are living organisms, capable of reproduction. Once released, they are beyond human control. They could dangerously contaminate, and possibly wipe out, the natural genetic basis. They are a new form of pollution which is difficult to detect and completely invisible. Because so little is known, their release is an uncontrolled experiment. The known risks of GMOs include the creation of hard-to-control weedy relatives of crops through crop-to-wild hybridization, the development of insect pests or weeds that are resistant to the chemicals used with GMO crops, and the unintentional poisoning of beneficial insects and non-target species. Still we need to know its affects in different dimensions. The regulatory agency GEAC or RCGM in India is not sufficient to judge the impact and we are lacking in enough scientific knowledge today to anticipate the future. As committee recommended it’s better to collaborate with nations having sought knowledge to tackle the problem. More over such an introduction is permitted under pressurized and deteriorating conditions having no other choice. But we are not facing such a drastic situation to invite this kind of disastrous experiments.

  15. VINNY
    Rate This Response!

    “Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India

    It is the ideological bias which is treating genetically modified crops as ‘destroyers’. Leftist newspapers are against the MNC’s undertaking these field trails. Perceptional bias of SC Judges stayed the same while scientifically deliberated decision of the ‘Select Committee’ wasn’t even looked into in detail.
    We, aspirants tend to follow journalistic views which are often biased. Why none of the above written answers bring out at least a couple of positive points on GM crops? Today India is producing sufficient amount of cotton just because of BT variety. Have any of us ever talked to a cotton growing farmer regarding the difference between old verity and the BT? All seedless fruits we consume ‘happily’ today are the success stories of Genetic Engineering. Has anyone died by eating seedless fruits. There are innumerable examples like absorbable bio-stitches, valves, high milk yielding animals…
    The perception that let the natural be natural is valid when other things surrounding them remain constant. on the contrary, we have polluted the environment, excessively utilizing the land for cropping, ground water, rain pattern, fertilizers, all have changed the natural ecosystem leading to the growth of newer varieties of weeds.
    In order to supply the demand, Shouldn’t we change the crop variety which is resistant to all these by intervening in some or the other way?
    This is for introspection…

    Neither ‘The Hindu’ understands this logic nor the UPSC(because of handful of JNU professors who evaluate our answers). Hence at the end of the day we all go by one sided “ANALYSIS”!!!!

    • RV
      Rate This Response!

      Hi Vinny ! The thing is firstly the statement given in d question needs to be analyzed and if u look at the answers people hav given the positives that it will help the farmers with more stress on cultural implications ! The Hindu too recently reported the views of pro GM people !

      The results conducted in Australia i think point to a grim health situation so just to have tastier food are we ready to sacrifice our health that too needs to be addressed !
      I respect and understand your concern but to say everyone is one sided is too stretched !

  16. Sabya
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    Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.

    The Obama administration has passed the Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability and Divestment Act (CISADA), which seeks to starve import-dependent Iran of gasoline and other refined products, by serving notice to foreign gasoline exporting countries that the continuation of their dealings with Tehran could compromise their business activities in the United States. Separately, the U.S.-led sanctions also target Iran’s Central Bank by penalising all foreign financial institutions that do business with it.

    The US-led international economic sanctions against Iran have inhibited Indo-Iranian energy ties considerably. Despite its relatively vast domestic energy sources, India’s impressive economic growth has left it increasingly dependent on foreign energy. In 2010, as the world’s fifth-largest net oil importer, India imported 70% of the oil it consumed. About 10% of these oil imports came from Iran

    India and Iran look like they are set to maintain their energy ties, a move that could help New Delhi arrest the sharp decline in the value of the rupee versus the dollar, and benefit Tehran, which has been badly hit by these unilateral sanctions marshalled by the United States.

    Unlike payments for its oil imports in dollars with other countries, India and Iran have worked out a complex mechanism that allows India to pay for its oil in rupees, which are then converted into physical goods that flow into Iran. The payments are made to the Kolkata-based UCO bank where the Iranians have opened an account. The rupee deposit is then used to pay Indian exporters, obviating the demand for dollars, and lowering the pressure on the currency to rise.

    Even as it publicly condemns U.S. sanctions, the Indian government is reportedly quietly urging the country’s refiners to gradually reduce their reliance on Iranian crude. The apparent contradiction between Delhi’s public defiance of the Western sanctions, and its quiet adaption to them, embodies the complex set of factors India’s leaders face in trying to balance New Delhi’s competing interests with the United States and Iran.

  17. TR
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    2) Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.
    Soln:
    CISADA or Comprehensive Iran Sanctions,Accountability, Divestment Act was passed by US congress in 2010.
    This objective of the this bill was to put financial, trade and currency related restrictions on Iranian economy to dissuade it from pursuing its nuclear enrichment prog which the US and western countries alleges Iran is pursuing under the garb of civil nuclear projects.

    Iran which is the 2nd largest oil producer in the world is technologically underdeveloped and does not possess the requisite tech to refine the crude oil and produce petrol and diesel for domestic consumption. So it relies heavily on the imports for these goods. This is exactly where CISADA tries to hit hard by putting sanctions on companies as well as countries which engage in supplying refined oil or refinery technology to Iran and thus building further pressure on Iranian govt. Along with it, there are some more sanctions related to Banking,Insurance and Currency exchange incorporated in CISADA which also try to burden the economy to greater extent.

    India, though has clearly stated that the nuclear powered Iran would never be in its strategical interests and would be a roadblock in creating stability in the region, is not a proponent of strict sanctions on Iran. But following the sanction imposed by CISADA has to cut down its business from Iran. Indian oil companies which were denied reinsurance by western institutions if they continued trading with Iran, were thus forced to cut down their imports through Iran. The Reliance Petroleum have already its business with Iran after the Sanctions. Despite all these setbacks Iran continues to be the second largest oil supplier to India after Saudi Arabia. India is now buying oil from Iran by using barter methods, i.e. providing medicines,clothes etc in return for oil. India has also been exempted from sanctions to build Chhabahar port in Iran and a highway in the Central Iran.

    Thus, surely the CISADA has had its effects on Indo-Iran relations, the relations have not gone to bottom and there exists multiple areas in which the both the countries are having a good mutual co-operation.

    • TR
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      Insights, please provide a score out of 10.

      Thanks in advance,
      TR

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      Good conclusion. Second paragraph could have been written in one sentence and more focus on India-Iran relations post-CISADA should have been there. The Hindu carried a good story yesterday about increasing trade between both the countries.

      Conclusion is very good. Structure is also very good.

  18. Asha Goud
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    “Crops in their centres of origin and diversity often have a deep cultural significance that can easily get lost when utilitarian issues dominate the discourse”. Examine the statement in the backdrop of the controversy over allowing field trials of Bt transgenics in certain food crops in India.

    A: India is a agriculture dominant country and its majority population depends on agriculture that is still carried out through traditional methods. Agriculture and associated practices have become a part of life of the rural people. Each region has a distinct culture and it includes food, festivals which are linked to agriculture.
    Recently there has been demands for introducing Genetically Modified food crops that are said to have benefits like pest and disease resistance, salt and drought resistance, high yields and nutrition , less use of fertilizerand pesticide, longer shelf life and therefore GM crops would be an answer to the problem of food insecurity in the world.
    In India too debate is going on whether benefits out do the criticisms of GM crops. GM crops are said to have negative impact on environment and also human health. In India the cultural aspect of introducing GM crops should be discussed as agriculture is not only an economic activity but it is also very strongly intermingled with traditions and culture of the people
    It is important that GM crops should be acceptable to people, earlier cross breeded cows that were introduced were not accepted and respected like the indigenous cows though these cows produced more milk.
    Agriculture and cropping patterns are associated with festivals and crops are associated with deities. Altering indigenous crops varieties can be considered as robbing it off its cultural significance for the people. Therefore in India the discussion on GM crops cannot be restricted to its economic and environmental impacts.

  19. Asha Goud
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    Analyze how CISADA has affected the ties between India and Iran.

    A: Comprehensive Iran Sanction, Accountability ans Disvestment Act (CISADA) passed by US Congress in 2010 with aim to put sanctions on Irans’s energy sector as well as on any individual or company that trade and investment relation with Iran’s energy sector. Recently these sanctions were extended to banking sector too.
    India imports a substantial quantity of crude from Iran.Supply from Iran is very crucial for India as India is dependent on imports for its energy requirements. India has opposed imposition of unilateral sanctions on Iran by US and EU. However India has decreased crude oil import from Iran to a small extent so that India is eligible for exemptions from sanctions under the US law. Also India’s plan to invest in natural gas exploration and production in Iran and the Iran-Pakistan-India pipeline has been shelved. Indian companies are facing problems in making payments to Iran after RBI scrapped the ACU payment mechanism in 2010. However alternatives mechanisms are being devised.
    India-Iran relations are not narrowly constricted to energy trade, with decrease in energy trade both countries are exploring means to diversify trade into other sectors like pharmaceuticals, electronics, agricultural products. Both countries understand the importance of co-operation in the backdrop of instability in West Asia. Iran provides India the much needed connectivity to Afghanistan and Central Asia through Chahbar port.
    At the recent 17th session of India Iran joint commission areas of mutual interest were discussed such as enhancing regional connectivity through International North South Transport corridor, regional security, enhancing bilateral trade and investment and encouraging cultural and people to people contact.
    Therefore India has to maintain a delicate balance between its relations with US and Iran keeping forward its national interest.