Tips For Writing Better Answers In UPSC Main Examination

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Many a time we hear from many serious aspirants things like this – “I work hard, read so much, every year I write mains, yet I fail to qualify for the Interview. Even if I qualify, I end up getting just 4-5 marks more than the cut-off. I am confused.”

Or this – “I attempted all the questions and wrote relevant points which I had read from my own notes. Yet, I fail to understand why UPSC has given me so less marks! I hate UPSC“.

Hating UPSC doesn’t help in this matter. Instead, one has to introspect if what they wrote was indeed a ‘right answer’ to the questions in the examination. For a moment, leaving aside your ego, ask yourself, “Did I really ‘analyze’ the question, or ‘examined it critically’, or as the question demanded, did I ‘evaluate’ the question and answered accordingly?”

Majority of you would agree that in the heat of the exam we seldom answer accurately to the question. We ‘explain‘ instead of ‘examining’ the question; or we just ‘enumerate‘ many points in the hope of filling the answer with ‘relevant points’ when the question was indeed asking you to ‘critically analyze‘.

upsc mains answer writing tips

UPSC asks  different kind of questions to test your analytic and critical abilities, which are necessary for any aspiring candidate to function impartially when he becomes an officer.

Bureaucrats, in their day-to-day business have to deal with many situations that tests their analytic and critical abilities. They ‘discuss‘ issues with their colleagues or subordinates; they have to ‘analyze‘ various factors before taking a final decision; they need to ‘examine‘ a case to assess its merit; they have to ‘evaluate‘ a situation before passing an order; and they may have to ‘comment‘ on different files based on empirical evidences.

These skills will enable you to form an unbiased opinion or judgement in such diverse situations.

So what is the way forward?

Tips For Writing A Better Answer

Two important factors decide the good outcome of your answer: one, understanding the question completely. Second, sticking to the word limit.

To understand a question fully, one must know that a question has keywords. Every question has a ‘topic’ and a ‘directive’.

For example,

” Gandhian strategy of non-violence and satyagraha had its own limitations”. Examine.

In the above question, the topic is ‘limitations of Gandhian strategy of Non-violence and satyagraha‘ and the directive is ‘Examine‘.

If we give an ‘explanation’ to this answer how Gandhian strategy  had limitations and how it affected Freedom struggle, the examiner is sure to give less than average marks. Instead, the directive points us towards a definite course of answering, here, ‘examination’ of the statement.

So, what does ‘Examine’ precisely mean?

Before we move to that, one should know that UPSC often gives many other directives in its questions and each demand a precise answer. Frequently used directives are, ‘Examine’, ‘Comment’, ‘Analyze’, ‘ ‘Evaluate’, ‘Discuss’, ‘Critically Examine’, Critically Comment’, ‘Critically Analyze’ and ‘Assess’.

  • Examine and Critically Examine

When you are asked to examine, you have to probe deeper into the topic,  get into details, and find out the causes or implications if any .

In the case of above question on Gandhi’s strategy, you have to probe the details of his strategy, find that if it really had limitations and provide a balanced view. All within a given word limit.

When asked to critically examine, as in the following question,

 “In the context of the growing demands for the ban of endosulfan in the country,’critically examine‘ the issues involved.What, in your view, should be done in the matter?” (2012, Paper-I)

In this question, you have to probe in detail two aspects: one, good and bad of Endosulfan. Second, implications of its ban. And arrive at an unbiased conclusion.

When ‘critically’ is suffixed or prefixed to a directive, all you need to do is look at the good and bad of something and give a fair judgement.

  • Comment and Critically Comment

The directive ‘comment’ is usually followed by a statement made by some famous personality, or taken out from a famous book. When you are asked to comment, you have to pick main points and give your ‘opinion’ on them based on evidences or arguments stemming from your wide reading.

Your opinion may be for or against, but you must back your argument with evidences.

These types of question offer you a chance to consolidate your reading of different subjects to justify your opinion.

Example,

“There is an urgent need for the Planning commission to revise the chapter on health in the 12th Five year Plan document”. Comment (GS-I 2012, UPSC)

Your answer to this question must contain your opinion backed by certain evidences.  If you agree with the statement, first mention what are the shortcomings in the chapter on health and offer your opinion in the form of suggestions backed by data from certain reports or committees.

Critically comment is also forming opinion on main points but in the end you have to provide a fair judgement.

Example,

Critically comment on the extent, scope and implications of Non Communicable Diseases in India.

To this question most of us tend to provide facts on extent, scope and implications, but it demands a fair opinion from our part based on evidences. Here one can form an opinion on how dire the situation is and how costly it can prove to health and wealth of the people and nation.

  • Analyze and Critically Analyze

When asked to analyze, you  have to examine methodically the structure or nature of the topic by separating it into component parts and present them as a whole in a summary.

When you are asked to analyze, you have to examine each part of the problem. It is a broader term than ‘Examine’.

Example,

“Conflicts in Indian society are not so much social as they are economic in nature”. Analyze.

This question though appears confusing, if broken into component parts, i.e, into conflicts arising out of social factors and economic factors, and then examining (probing deeply) the nature of each part, it becomes easy to conclude your answer. (In this question, ‘economic nature’ mentioned is nothing other than ‘development’ – whose lack is the root of major conflicts in our society these days)

Critically Analyze:

You need to conclude with  a fair judgement, after analyzing the nature of each component part and interrelationship between them.

Example:

“Analyze critically the  interlinkages between the Convention on Biodiversity and FAO treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.”

As critical analysis of this question involves separate examination of COB and FAO Treaty and the examination of their inter-relationship – if both are in harmony with each other or there is any conflict between them (they are in harmony).

Observe the word ‘interlinkages’ in the question itself.

  • Evaluate

When you are asked to evaluate, you have to pass a sound judgement about the truth of the given statement in the question or the topic based on evidences.  You have to appraise the worth of the statement in question. There is scope for forming a personal opinion here.

Example,

Has the RTI made a noticeable impact on our governance system?Evaluate.

While answering this question, you have to, based on evidence,  appraise whether the RTI act has really made an impact on governance and give your opinion on the issue.

  • Discuss

This is an all-encompassing directive – you have to debate on paper by going through the details of the issues concerned by examining each one of them. You have to give reasons for both for and against arguments.

Example,

Discuss the contentious issues that have caused the prolonged constitutional logjam in Nepal.

The question is self-explanatory. You have to debate the issues both for and against, find the reasons and examine them. There are various actors, factors involved in Nepal which is prolonging the finalization of their constitution. Focus on the causes.

(At the end of this article, links to few PDFs is given that will give you definitions for 10-15 commonly used directives.)

In the Examination Hall

General Studies papers are a headache for many aspirants – “so many questions, but so less time to answer all of them” – is the common complaint we hear before and after exam. Previously, one could answer only for 400-450 marks out of 600 marks in GS.

So, is there a way out to attempt at least 500+ marks in the exam?

Yes. There is a way. But it requires hard work. A plan and its execution. Everyday.

But How?

Practice, Practice and Practice. Everyday. Only through practicing answer writing every day, keeping in mind the different directive words, the demand of the question and the word limit (from this year UPSC will provide question-cum-answer sheet), you will be able to write fast and think fast in the exam hall.

Before entering the exam hall,  your mind should be trained to quickly identify the nature of the question. In the 3 hours you get, more time must be spent on thinking about the answer, not on questions.

A thorough practice before the final exam also saves you from panics in the exam hall.

Most aspirants go to exam hall without knowing the subtle differences between directive words and end up giving a very general answer that would fetch only average marks.

To get a top rank, you must have at least 100 marks above the cutoff marks. This is possible only if you answer more number of questions and more accurately.

Points to remember when you are in the exam hall:

  • Read the instructions on the question paper – there will be a chance of introducing certain changes from that of previous year’s
  • Allot 5 minutes to scan the whole question paper – while scanning quickly mark the questions by pencil  which you think you are comfortable answering
  • Now start with big questions – Read 2-3 times the question. Underline the main topic/issue and most importantly, the directive word.
  • Underline the word limit too.
  • Don’t jump into the answer. Think on the question. And think quickly the outline of your answer.

The Basic Anatomy of an Answer

Introduction is a must. It is the best part of the answer where you tell the reader what is awaiting him in next few paragraphs. You must state your thesis in a clear statement. Introduction is not a summary of your answer. It leads the reader to your answer in clear manner.

In the next paragraph, you start arguing based on the thesis in the introduction and directive word of the question. Throughout the answer, you must remember the directive word.

Split your answer into few small paragraphs containing one single idea that is a continuum of the previous paragraph and an indicator to the next one.

Remember, you should read the question after each paragraph.

The introduction and all the paragraphs should lead to a logical conclusion. Don’t repeat the question or introduction in your conclusion. Also there is wrong perception that your conclusion should ‘suggest’ something. No, the conclusion to your answer must stem from the body of your answer. It can not be a separate part in the answer.

Don’t use jargon. Don’t be verbose. Don’t use flowery/ornamental language. Simplicity wins the hearts. Be precise and effective. Make the examiner happy.

Finally I would like to say that, when you answer a question, you ‘answer’ it. Don’t dump the facts, don’t exhibit superfluous knowledge and end up getting mediocre marks.

Some related documents (for more Directive words and their definitions):

  1. http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ld/resources/pdfs-of-study-guides/writing-skills-pdfs/essay-terms.pdf
  2. http://elc.uark.edu/wp-content/uploads/2011/07/Answering-the-Essay-Short-Answer-Exam-Question.pdf
  3. http://tullyshistoryclass.weebly.com/uploads/8/0/3/5/8035589/key_terms_for_essays.pdf
  4. http://writingskills.calpoly.edu/gwr/wpe/tips/directive_words.html
  5. http://www.griffith.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/320006/directive-words.pdf
  6. http://education.exeter.ac.uk/dll/studyskills/answering_questions.htm
  • Debnath Mondal

    my problem is i cannot recollect points while writing .

    • PA1

      i think you dont have a habit of compilation of what you read.repeated reading and writing practise may correct your problem

  • vivek

    anser cum question booklet frm this time

  • lakshmi prasanna

    awesome sir u became a great psychiatrist. i have doubts, can we equate our introduction part with that of an abstract of a paper or else is there any difference in them ? if S what is that? and the other one is often i hear about logical arrangement is important. what it is all about please help me in understanding this. thanks a lot for a detailed article.

    • Thanks Lakshmi 🙂

      No, abstract is different. It is nothing but summary. Whereas an introduction is a place where you propose your intent (thesis) about the course of your answer. Good introductions fetch good marks.

      Yes logical arrangement is important. A good introduction leads to a logical flow of answer. If you don’t know what you are going to write in the answer, then obviously you will struggle to give a good introduction. So practicing writing is the only solution.

      • lakshmi prasanna

        thank u sir

  • This is the best analysis of the UPSC’s directives in the questions in India. Coaching institutes won’t take this much effort to explain.

    The examples given helps to understand the directives more clearly. Freshers will immensely benefit from this.

    I would like to add few points
    –> Answer lies in the Question – Just explain and link key words of the Question to make an answer

    –> Link the paragraphs with key words like ‘Moreover’, ‘Subsequently’, ‘However’ etc

    Great Job. Keep up the good work 🙂

    • Thanks a lot YN 🙂

      Thanks for reminding me about linking words. I forgot them. I will update it.

  • Raman

    super macha!!

  • Dinesh

    Hi. Nice article.. I have a doubt when many say Critically analyse or Critically examine, they mention about both Plus and minus of the topic and arrive at balanced view. Is that what critical word means? Basically when we say we are criticizing or critical of something or someone, we mean we find fault or suspect him/her, right? So critically analyse should mean we need to find negatives of said topic or to make the topic or theory to be complete, we need to find the miss outs by the theorists. Thats what we also mean Critiques of some theorists, isn’t it?

    For example, When BJP criticize Food security Bill of UPA, they find loopholes in the drafted bill and how it would affect the society, right? So we say them critiques of the food security bill.

    Also one small correction in the sentence – ‘Make the Examiner happy’. It should be ‘Make the Evaluator happy’ as he values our answers and provides marks..:-)

    • Dinesh,

      Thanks.

      Critical word actually means making a fair, careful judgement about the good and bad qualities of something. (Oxford advanced learner’s dictionary, Page 364, 7th edition)

      Finding fault is the supposedly birth right of Indian opposition parties and you can not ‘credit’ them with being critical when they ‘oppose’ government policies. BJP can look at the positives of the bill too, but it doesn’t (you know why), if Congress was in opposition, it would have been even worse.

      The meaning you gave is also correct, but UPSC is interested in the meaning I gave above.

      Evaluator is a wrong word and often used in India wrongly. Examiner is the one who evaluates papers or looks after evaluation.

      See this: http://www.indianexpress.com/news/university-issues-showcause-notices-to-examiners-who-skipped-evaluation-duty/896842/

      http://jntuh.ac.in/new/examination/examinations.html

      Also, you can google the word evaluator to see yourself. Moreover, as I type, Spellchecker is marking the word ‘evaluator’ as wrong. 🙂

      • Dinesh

        Thanks for your response.. anyhow we need to stick to UPSC expectations to score more. 🙂

        Also when I googled the word Evaluator, it has mentioned in free dictionary that as an authority who is able to estimate worth or quality. Also my wordpad accepts the word evaluator. Again here the word ‘googled’, though it is not accepted in this wordpad, it has been recently added in oxford due to its more frequent usage informally.
        http://www.thefreedictionary.com/evaluator

        Anyhow once again I Thank you for your constructive input..

  • Mohit

    hi, i am going to write mains for the first time. so please forgive me if this sounds like a ridiculous question.

    does an “answer cum question booklet” mean a booklet in which answer will have to be written under the question itself; and that there wont be a SEPARATE ANSWER SHEET?

    • It is not a ridiculous question. Even I googled few days ago to know its meaning.

      Yes, you have to write answers below the questions within a given space. This space will be limited so as to accommodate answers within word limits. You can’t carry home your question paper.

      This system is in place for many years in UGC-NET exams.

      • Prudhvi Raj

        Hi.. my optional is geography.. will there be enough space for diagrams or should we practice making them smaller…

      • Naveen shekhar

        sir,there are chances that we will get take-home-paper as well,as is evident from ifs mains exam held recently

        • Ya right. I didnt know it then.

  • Maaduri

    This article is really helpful. Thanks a lot

  • Mohit

    Hi Insights
    Even after reading this post again and again, I feel I am still not clear about the difference between the various ‘directive’ words.

    It seems that all directives have to include ‘our opinions’ in the body, and a ‘fair judgement’ or ‘balanced view’ in the end (It would also help if you could explain the difference, if any, between ‘fair judgement’ and ‘judgement’). So could you please explain the difference again, maybe with an example of one question with the same topic but different directive words.

    For example, in the question: ” Gandhian strategy of non-violence and satyagraha had its own limitations”

    OR

    “There is an urgent need for the Planning commission to revise the chapter on health in the 12th Five year Plan document”

    How would the answer be different if it was followed by different directives such as:
    1. Examine
    2. Comment
    3. Evaluate
    4. Discuss

    I think I would end up writing the same answer for any of the above directives. So please help.

    • Ankit

      Hey i have the same doubts, all i could conjure up is to write the answer, bring out both aspects of the particular thing asked and give your opinion on the facts and analyis presented.

      • My thoughts exactly. Insights, help please? Thanks in advance!

        • Actually, if it helps…I went through the links at the end of the post. Reading the same thing over and over again in different words made it clearer for me. Should have done that from the start, my bad :/

          • It’s confusing initially. Through practice, meaning of each directive becomes clear. Glad that at least those links at the end helped you.

    • vijay

      Examine- what are the factors made PC to revise the health chapter
      Comment-my own opinion why should PC revive
      Evaluate-if PC does not revise what happens, if it revise, what happens
      Discuss-should PC revise the chapter or not

      please correct me insights

    • dreamcatcher

      in first reading of this article , i am unable to differentiate between various directives … may be subsequent reading and answer writing will help me to experience the beauty of this article. …. thanxxx INSIGHTS!

  • vipul

    Thank you. U r doing a great job by helping us with difficulties…
    Thanks alot Sir. I truly admire u !!!

  • Ashok

    Simly splendid work sir…I’ll kee this info in mind when I ractise writing answers..Thank you INSIGHTS…

  • ITTEFAQUE ALAM SYED

    EAST OR WEST INSIGHT IS THE BEST
    YOUR VALUABLE GUIDLINE IS SAYING THAT
    FACE THE SUN TOUCH THE MOON TALK TO THE STARS LIKE BECOME AN IAS OFFICERS IS NOT DIFFICULT……

  • geet

    Sir, is it necessary to give titles and subtitles in answers?
    more so for opinion-based questions?

    • Ameya

      even i want to ask this….does it help to give subtitles in answers?

  • Hitendra Gadhavi

    Sir.thanx for explaining backbone of mains.its very useful

  • Amrita

    I feel as if I’ve really lost out by nt knowing abt this wonderful site frm before.:( Newez…bettr late dan nvr..y’de I wrote 4 answers (one I typed, rest 3 in copy) & found myself gettin faster, thinkin faster…readin others’ points helped me 2 enrich my knowledge base…:)..I lov d site…frm y’de till Dec 1 no stoppin on writin 4 answers each day! 🙂 Thnks so mch!

  • Ishan

    Great Job Insight 🙂 , have recently discovered yoor website and it’s fabolous , you are doing a awesome job.

    People like you and mrunal are our life saver.

  • takung hinium

    thanks

  • PRAFUL CHOUHAN

    SIR WHY IFOS WRITE IN ENGLISH

  • Naveen

    Nice…it is very much helpful and resolves the million dollar question how to write the good answer in mains…once again thanks a lot…

  • Jyoti
  • k.vamsi manoj kumar

    Dear sir,
    I’m manoj kumar completed m.sc in biotechnology. I want to become a IAS officer,I would like to give successfull attempt for CAST-2015. I have choosen the AGRICULTURE as optional subject. This 1 year preparation is enough to crack the upsc sucessfully. Sir please give suggestions for my question.

  • bhushan

    Thanks a ton. 🙂

    For me, without this article, understanding the questioning of UPSC itself will be difficult. I think the same should be incorporated while studying the subject itself which will make it easier while answering.

    Could you please clarify my doubts below:
    Can we write the answers in bullet points?

    I was suggested by senior players that reading editorials before prelims does not help much in mains. Post-prelims news weigh much in mains.
    Is that true?

    • Thank you.

      Yes you can write using bullets. But avoid it for every answers.

      Your senior is right. Current events is more important for mains than for prelims.

  • siddhartho

    @INSIGHT,

    Dear SIR,
    Till master degree we just read some general forms of questions such as “EXAMINE THE ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE MEASURES TAKEN BY THE BRITISH-INDIA GOVERNMENT TO TIGHTEN IMPERIAL CONTROL OVER INDIA DURING 1858-1905”.We had read one note for that!

    But in here questions are very flexible. UPSC has a try to test candiates’ own power of expressing a question/problem.1.WHAT I DO,MAKE NOTE OR
    READ THROUGH BOOKS & ARTICLES???
    2.IMPORTANCE OF NOTE IN HERE,IF ANY???
    !!!

    • siddhartho

      (DELETE “BUT IN HERE QUESTIONS ARE VERY FLEXIBLE”)But in here questions are very puzzle type. I want to say own creativity of forming ans in examination hall must be required in the place of previous common.AWAITING FOR YOUR SUGGESTION…

      • Yes UPSC tests your analytical abilities. To cultivate this you have tp practice writing every day in your own words. Read form good authentic sources and form your opinion. Then express your opinion to any 2-3 questions framed on those topics.

        You can try Secure-2014 initiative for this.

  • manpreet ghotra

    thank you so much sir….
    it was really worth reading and i feel that this is the backbone of mains. i have seen many intelligent people not qualifying mains. now i got the reason why sometime intelligent fail and average student wins the race.

  • innocent raaz

    bande hai hum uske … hmpe kiska jor… umido k suraj nikle charo or … irade h foladi…. himati har kadam… apne haantho kismat likhne… aaj chale h hmm…

  • radhe

    I Hate this ….!!!!!

    • chandu lakshmi

      UPSC?

  • Mohd Naseem

    These are very good and helpful instructions .. but how to check word limit while writing answer … Please suggest some good strategy towards it ..

  • is GOOD Handwriting iz charismatic in writing the Mains, or its OK with AVERAGE Handwriting

  • Aarju

    vry nyc post. I have a question, can avg students means who have scored 60% in 12th can be able to give such upsc exams..???

  • Richards Samson

    thank u sir

  • Aakash
  • Du – Juan Harris – RB Green Bay Packers Although he hinted that he would
    go back to selling cars in the offseason, I have a feeling that Du – Juan Harris will not be on any car lot at the beginning of the 2013 NFL
    season. Gene Wojciechowski’s ode to college football is a great read.
    So besides the fact that both sports are being played with 11 players on the field, the similarity ends here.

  • anoop

    sir,
    when I really started to write answer. I couldn’t able to write a single sentence. Please somebody help me to overcome this resistance.

  • dileep

    How to prepare notes for news papers and magazines????

  • Aadi

    Awsome post….
    though confidence will come through practice only.

  • Pravallika Shastri

    Thanq so much …I found it very useful as a beginner and can you please suggest me a good evaluator ? Am unable to know what my mistakes and drawbacks are in writing an answer. A single answer of mine wins applaud by few and extreme remarks by few. Am unable to judge about my improvement. Iam in dire need of practice answer script evaluator.

  • Vikash Kumar

    Very good information on answer writing. Especially for a new comer like me.

  • santosh murali

    Thanks a lot sir….

  • santosh murali

    Infact many fail to answer the question as the derictives demands which results in medicorenmarks…

  • mallu

    Thanks

  • SBM

    Sir, Could you please suggest a source where I can see some sample answers which are following the given directives strictly?

  • Vikas Kumar Sharma

    Very nice and helpful guide, thanks a lot.

  • Agastaya

    One important way would be that even when preparing/studying for the first time would be to note the areas where the points could be made. This helps you when you actually try writing answers. It improves speed and the clarity of the answers

  • Priyanka

    sir,
    You have repeatedly insisted on the fruitfulness of attempting test questions regularly put up on your website.I have recently started my preparation and have not covered much theory yet. My question is when/ at what stage should i start attempting the mock questions ?

  • NIRAJ KUMAR SINHA

    excelent !!!

  • P Sharma

    Sir during answer writing we have to quote the name of committee’s name. Or just use its theme to write that perspective of answer whenever needed

  • lavanya

    i heard that writing in points fetch more marks than writing in paras. Can you please suggest me?

  • mains2015

    khazana mil gaya.. thanku so much insight !!!! 😉

  • The Messanger

    You rock….Thanks……

  • Nishant Kumar

    Hey friends am looking for a group of 5 serious members to form a group on whatsapp regarding upsc preparation and debates on a given topic and many more..it will be fruitful and of much importance..but again reminding only serious candidates..Nishant kumar singh…08800873723

    • sraavanthi vadrevu

      Hey Nishant I would like to join the group.

      • sraavanthi vadrevu

        BTW what is your optional

  • mukesh kumar

    this is what??? analysis or examine or discuss or other(key word)–made by insight????give accurate answer.i have linked with upsc in deep,ha ha ha ha.plz. ans.

  • mukesh kumar

    thanks insight for hard work on the very critical part of war.

  • Coder

    thanks a lot sir for detailed explanation.

  • Challenge

    Wonderful sir. Thank you

  • Mani Champ

    Very usefull!

  • Pranchal Nehra

    ‘Conflicts in Indian society are not so much social as they are economic in nature”. Analyze.’
    In this question, the explanation given for ECONOMIC NATURE is referred to as Development and I understood that but I am not getting the whole explanation to the question. What I understand from the question is that The Indian society if facing conflicts more of economic nature or in other way we can say Rich is getting richer and poor is getting poorer and also due this difference India is suffering a jobless growth which creating more difference between Urban or developed cities and underdeveloped or Rural areas. Moreover it will be a greater set back to the society more than the social problems. The Social Nature refers to all the other social evils prevailing in the society like caste system and then we can link both the problems and make a conclusion. Pls correct me if I am wrong.

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